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西装还是裙子?服装性别刻板印象的情境效应

Suit or Skirt? The Context Effect of Clothing Gender Stereotype

摘要:本研究通过三个系列研究分别基于行动者和观察者视角考察了服装性别刻板印象的情境效应。结果发现:(1)人们对穿着反服装性别刻板男性的热情和能力评价均显著低于服装性别刻板者;而对反服装性别刻板女性的热情评价不存在明显差异,对其能力评价更高。(2)基于观察者视角:无论热情还是能力需要情境,人们均对符合服装性别刻板男性目标的热情和能力评价更高;而在能力需求情境,对于符合服装性别刻板的女性热情评价更高,而对反服装性别刻板的女性能力评价更高。(3)基于行动者视角:无论在热情需求还是能力需求情境,男性均表现出对符合性别刻板服装的偏好;在能力需求情境下,女性更倾向于选择反性别刻板服装;进一步,在能力需求情境下,选择反性别刻板的女性对自己的能力评价显著高于热情;在交友需求情境选择反性别刻板服装的男性对自己的热情评价显著高于能力。这些结果将传统以“人”为对象的性别刻板印象研究拓展到与人关联的服装领域,一方面丰富了性别刻板印象维护的抵制行为功能模型;另一方面对于人际交往领域中采用服装进行不同场景的印象管理具有重要的实践应用价值。

英文摘要: " Gender stereotype is the classic research topic in social psychology. Previous research focused on the “people” as the gender stereotypes’ research targets and achieved fruitful results. As the important obvious cues of gender, clothing reflects gender stereotypes and impacts impression formation subtly. Through three experiments, this study explored the context effect of clothing gender stereotype in view of perceivers and actors perspectively. The results showed that participants rated men in counter-gender stereotypical clothes as lower in both of warmth and competence. However, there was no significant difference between ratings in warmth of women in gender (counter-)stereotypical clothes and women in gender counter-stereotypical clothes were rated as higher in competence. From the view of perceivers, participants gave better evaluation to male targets who were consistent with gender stereotype no matter in warmth or competence needed condition. For female targets, participants rated those who were in gender stereotypical clothes as higher in warmth while those who were in gender counter-stereotypical clothes as higher in competence. Form the view of actors, male participants showed tendency to be in gender stereotypical clothes no matter in warmth or competence needed condition. Female participants were more likely to choose gender counter-stereotypical clothes in competence needed condition. What’s more, in competence needed condition, female participants who chose gender counter-stereotypical clothes rated themselves as higher in competence than warmth. In warmth needed condition, male participants who chose gender counter-stereotypical clothes rated themselves as higher in warmth than competence. Those results extended the traditional research whose targets were human into the area of clothing which as related with human. On one hand, this study contributes to the gendercounter- stereotypical behavior function model. On the other hand, it also has important implications for management of impression in area of interpersonal communication through choosing different for various conditions.

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[V1] 2019-12-30 21:08:35 chinaXiv:201912.00039V1 下载全文
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