|[英文摘要] People can infer personal traits from names, and impressions of individual can be influenced by names. It is estimated that male-oriented names and female-oriented names have difference on the perception of the big two fundamental traits: warmth and competence. It raises an interesting question: how people evaluate individuals with opposite gender-oriented names, and what effect does the name have on the individual's interpersonal interaction. To answer these questions, the first aim of the current study was to test the content of gender-oriented names in Chinese context, and examine the effects of name-gender orientation and gender on individual’s impression formation. The second aim of the study was to explore the behavioral aftereffects of names and its evaluation-behavior mechanism.
Four studies were carried out to explore this problem. In Study 1, 176 undergraduate participants were presented with 100 gender orientation names, participants were asked to rate names on 4 traits (2 on warmth dimension, 2 on competence dimension). In Study 2, 121 undergraduate participants were presented with information about two subjects, two subjects are of the same sex but different gender orientation names. Participants were asked to rate two subjects on warmth and competence dimension. In Study 3a, 136 undergraduate participants were presented with introductions, which describe two person with different gender orientation names in the context of trip. In Study 3b, 131 undergraduate participants were imagined that they would meet two person with different names in the context of finishing task. Participants in Study 3a and Study 3b were then asked to evaluate subjects on 6 traits (3 on warmth dimension, 3 on competence dimension), and choose one as partner to complete corresponding activities.
The results showed that: (1) Female-oriented names were higher on warmth than male-oriented names, male-oriented names were higher on competence than female-oriented names; (2) Individuals with gender-consistent names were considered to have the characteristic of typical male or female: female with female-oriented names were perceived more warmth than female with male-oriented names, and male with male-oriented names were perceived more competence than man with female-oriented names; (3) Individuals with gender-inconsistent names were considered to have the characteristics of the opposite sex: male with female-oriented names were perceived more warm than female with male-oriented names, female with male-oriented names were perceived more competence than male with female-oriented names; (4) Participants intended to make friends with female subjects whose name is consistent with gender, and trait warmth totally mediated the impact of gender-oriented names on willingness to interact; Participants intended to finish task with male whose name is consistent with gender, and trait competence totally mediated the impact of gender-oriented names on willingness to cooperate.
In conclusion, the current study is the first to explore gender-oriented names and gender on impression of name owners by applying the content of stereotype, and examines the influence of gender-oriented names on individual impression and behavior intention and its mechanism from the perspective of social motivation. This study provides new theoretical basis and empirical support for impression evaluation and interpersonal interaction based on names, and has important implications for the future research about name social cognition. Future research should explore the content of gender-ambiguous names and its’ effects on individual’s impression and behavior aftereffects, and combine emotion and cognition to examine the influence of names on interpersonal interaction.