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自动驾驶汽车与行人交互中的沟通界面设计:基于行人过街决策模型的评估

Evaluation of external HMI in autonomous vehicles based on pedestrian road crossing decision-making model

Submit Time: 2021-05-24
Author: 蒋倩妮 1 ; 庄想灵 1 ; 马国杰 1 ;
Institute: 1.陕西师范大学;

Abstracts

自动驾驶汽车要进入人车混行的普通道路,需确保与过街行人之间的交互安全和效率。为解决这一问题,高等级自动驾驶车辆往往在在车辆外部装置显示设备,即外部人机界面(eHMIs)以和行人沟通信息。在具体设计上,已有研究主要采用文字、图形、投影等视觉沟通形式,传达车辆状态(是否在自动驾驶模式)、意图和对行人的过街建议等沟通信息,并在真实路段实验、虚拟场景及实验室实验等情境中评估了界面的使用对行人过街意向、速度和准确性等指标的影响。然而,以行人为中心的外部界面设计需系统地支持行人过街决策前各阶段的信息加工需求。因此,我们结合行人过街决策过程和情境意识理论,提出行人与自动驾驶车辆交互中的动态过街决策模型,从行人认知加工视角评估各种界面的沟通效果。评估的结果启示,eHMIs应促进行人对车辆信息的感知、理解和预测。在感知阶段,应采用多种类型界面、多呈现载体相结合,增强信息的可识别性。在理解阶段,需结合文字说明、合理选择沟通视角、信号标准化和培训提高可理解性。在预测阶段,应结合车辆内隐运动信息,帮助行人快速准确获取车辆未来行动意图。更重要的是,未来研究应关注在多行人、多车辆混行情境下的信息沟通设计及其对行人的影响。理论方面,未来研究也需要关注外部界面如何通过自下而上的通路影响情境意识和心智模型的形成。
[英文摘要]For autonomous vehicles driven in road context with pedestrians, it is essential to ensure safe and efficient interaction with pedestrians. To that end, autonomous vehicles of high level (e.g. above L3) are usually equipped with an external human-machine interface (eHMIs) to communicate with pedestrians. An overview of current studies shows that the current external eHMIs mainly conveyed vehicle status (whether it is in auto mode), intentions, and road-crossing advice to pedestrians in visual modalities such as text, icon, projection, etc. These eHMIs have been evaluated to determine their effect on pedestrian’s crossing intention, speed, and accuracy in real as well as simulated contexts. However, a user-centered design of eHMIs should systematically support pedestrian information processing needs during road crossing decision making. To fill the gap, a conceptual model was proposed to capture pedestrian’s dynamic road crossing decision-making when interacting with autonomous vehicles. The model integrated pedestrian’s road crossing decision-making process and the situation awareness theory. Based on the model, eHMIs should promote pedestrian’s perception, comprehension, and the projection of the vehicle’s intention. To support the perception of the displayed information, eHMIs should adopt multiple modalities’ interfaces to convey the vehicle’s information, and consider presenting information on media beyond the vehicle, such as the street infrastructure and the electronics of pedestrians. To support comprehension of the displayed information, pedestrians need to be trained. More importantly, the information should be carefully designed with an appropriate massage perspective and standardized formats. In the projection phase, vehicle motion information as a traditional yet intuitive way to convey the vehicle’s future intentions can be strengthened and integrated with eHMI to assist faster and more accurate decision-making. Besides the simple one-to-one context of interaction, future research should also explore how the design of the interface impacts pedestrians in the context of multi-pedestrian and multi-vehicle contexts. Theoretically, exploration is also needed on how the eHMI supports the formation and update of their situation awareness and how it affects mental models in human-vehicle interactions.
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From: 庄想灵
DOI:10.12074/202105.00076
Recommended references: 蒋倩妮,庄想灵,马国杰.(2021).自动驾驶汽车与行人交互中的沟通界面设计:基于行人过街决策模型的评估.[ChinaXiv:202105.00076] (Click&Copy)
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[V1] 2021-05-24 21:51:55 chinaXiv:202105.00076V1 Download
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