|随着社会的发展, 家庭中的性别角色分工虽有所变化, 不过传统的“男主外女主内”的刻板观念仍然存在。虽然已有大量研究关注到性别刻板印象激活的一致性效应, 但在不同冲突水平的任务背景下, 不同条件诱发的认知控制对性别刻板印象表达的影响尚不明确, 因此在以往研究的基础上, 本研究基于经典的双重控制理论和冲突监控理论, 探究不同任务冲突试次比例条件对性别刻板印象表达的影响。结果发现：(1)当目标信息为图像刺激时, 不同冲突比例的任务水平对性别刻板印象的表达没有差异；(2)而当目标信息为语义刺激时, 高冲突比例的任务水平易抑制性别刻板印象的表达, 低冲突比例的任务水平易加强性别刻板印象的表达, 并且高冲突水平下产生的认知控制加工能够在随后不同的任务中得到保持。这些结果表明不同冲突比例水平的任务引发的认知控制可以抑制性别刻板印象的表达, 但会受到信息呈现形式的影响。|
|[英文摘要]Cognitive control is the ability of individuals to flexibly adjust their thoughts and behaviors and deal with compatible and conflicting information when facing tasks. It ensures that our actions are performed smoothly according to the expected purpose. However, conflict information contains pure cognitive conflict and social conflict information. With the development of society, the division of labor of gender roles in the family has changed. Nevertheless, the traditional stereotype that men work outside and women work inside the house still exists. Furthermore, although many studies have examined the consistency effect of gender stereotype activation, the influence of cognitive control induced by different conditions on gender stereotype expression is not apparent under the task background of different conflict levels. Therefore, based on previous studies, the classic dual cognitive control theory that explains cognitive control processing, and the conflict monitoring theory that explains conflict tasks, this study systematically discusses the behavior patterns of gender stereotype expression under different conflict test times.
In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to complete the picture classification tasks with three conflict levels using the gender picture as the priming stimulus and housework picture and work picture as the target stimulus. Experiment 2 adjusted the target stimulus to semantic stimulus and asked the participants to complete three-word classification tasks with different conflict levels. To further investigate the influence of varying conflict backgrounds of subsequent task conflict, Experiment 3 adopted the trial-to-trial control adjustment paradigm. In this paradigm, a full trial consists of two judgment tasks. First, the participants complete the word classification tasks with different conflict levels. Thereafter, they complete the gender Flanker tasks with the same conflict level.
Experiment 1 showed that the image classification task could inhibit the expression of gender stereotypes regardless of the proportion of conflict times. Regarding the word classification task in Experiment 2, compared to the baseline level, the expression of gender stereotypes was inhibited at the high conflict level and activated at the low conflict level. Experiment 3 showed that the cognitive control processing generated by high conflict levels could be maintained in subsequent tasks. Furthermore, it was not affected by the change of task type. Additionally, Experiments 2 and 3 using the processing separation program showed that the control processing value under the high conflict condition was higher than that under the low conflict condition.
These results indicate that cognitive control induced by tasks with different conflict proportions can inhibit the expression of gender stereotypes; however, it is affected by the presentation of information.