您当前的位置: > 详细浏览

工作记忆中“组块”概念的演化及理论模型

The development of concept and theoretical models of "chunking" in working memory

摘要:在Miller提出神奇的数字72之后,块被很多理论作为个体工作记忆加工过程中具有稳定结构并可用于用于衡量记忆容量的单位。但随着研究者对组块研究的深入,他们对组块的定义也在发生着改变。与此同时,不少研究发现个体的年龄阶段与其主要采用的组块层级相对应,但尚不清楚组块层级的转换是否存在固定的年龄区间,且对组块机制的解释仍存在分歧。因此本文针对组块定义的发展与演变、年龄阶段特征及其机制三方面展开综合讨论。未来的研究可以更多探讨长时记忆在工作记忆组块运行机制的作用,完善不同年龄阶段个体的组块特征,以及怎样发挥复述策略和少即是多原则在组块过程中的优势等问题。在Miller提出神奇的数字72之后,块被很多理论作为个体工作记忆加工过程中具有稳定结构并可用于用于衡量记忆容量的单位。但随着研究者对组块研究的深入,他们对组块的定义也在发生着改变。与此同时,不少研究发现个体的年龄阶段与其主要采用的组块层级相对应,但尚不清楚组块层级的转换是否存在固定的年龄区间,且对组块机制的解释仍存在分歧。因此本文针对组块定义的发展与演变、年龄阶段特征及其机制三方面展开综合讨论。未来的研究可以更多探讨长时记忆在工作记忆组块运行机制的作用,完善不同年龄阶段个体的组块特征,以及怎样发挥复述策略和少即是多原则在组块过程中的优势等问题。

英文摘要:Working memory is an important system to store and deal with a mass of information. On account of the limitation of working memory capacity, several memory strategies of memory are usually adopted to satisfy the needs of overloaded information processing. Chunking is one of the most effective memory strategies, and it is a matter of great concern about working memory. Although previous researches have confirmed that chunking can increase the capacity of working memory, there are debates on the concept of chunking, the relationship between the structure of chunking and development of age, chunking capacity, and its works mechanism. In this case, it is still worth studying about these questions. First of all, the function of chunking in short-term memory were supposed to be storage only. Based on working memory, however, chunking was also responsible for the information processing. Secondly, chunking involved three kinds of hierarchical organizations according to its complexity, which was corresponding to various age stages. At present, few research focus on the characteristics of chunking in children and teenagers. The evidence of transition point between the second and third level was not clearly enough. Thirdly, the most popular theories of chunking were chunking theory, templates theory and embedded-processes model. The remarkable difference among these theories was the amount of chunks in working memory which was influenced by the structure of chunking and the way it works. In the future, it is worth to focus on the role of long-term memory during chunking in working memory, the features of chunks at the stages of ages, and develop the advantage of the principle of less is more.

版本历史

[V1] 2022-06-22 14:58:00 chinaXiv:202206.00165V1 下载全文
点击下载全文
同行评议状态
待评议
许可声明
metrics指标
  • 点击量396
  • 下载量100
评论
分享
邀请专家评阅