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儿童科学概念的跨领域激活与其基础知识掌握程度的关系:一例基于反应时的预研究

摘要:科学概念间激活(例如联想)不仅是儿童对科学知识的重要组织方式,亦是其学习复杂概念(如由多个知识点构成的复合概念)的一个重要途径。从一节电学课例的细节得到启发,利用E-Prime软件研究了拥有不同电学知识基础的学生对于电学单元内外概念的激活情况(以反应时为主要指标)。结果显示:①基础知识的掌握程度与概念的跨领域激活能力呈负相关,即基础知识越差,跨领域激活速度越快(P<0.05);②基础知识越好,其激活行为越接近于科学教师。结论:①基础知识越差,其跨领域的联想能力越强,思维越活跃;②造成此种现象的原因可能源于思考的模式化;③由此,将发散思维作为创造力的心理学基础这一观点存在潜在的逻辑矛盾。

英文摘要:One concept activates another concept (such as associating one concept with another), which belongs to the organizational form of knowledge representation. It reflects the human brain's management method of dealing with a large amount of knowledges. At the same time, the activation of concepts plays an important role in children's learning new knowledges. Previous studies have shown that the activation of concepts is not random, but has its internal laws. It is mainly divided into taxonomic relationship and thematic relationship. A cognitive neuroscience study shows that taxonomic relationship is the main relationship of concept activation, and theme relationship is embedded in it. Therefore, interdisciplinary concept activation should not be easy. The main purpose of this experiment was to investigated the interdisciplinary concepts activation ability of different subjects through reaction time(RT). The total sample of the experiment was 22 fifth grade students. We first conducted a round of basic tests about circuit knowledges, and selected the three students with the highest and lowest scores(6 in total), and assigned them to the high and low groups respectively to enter the second round of tests. The second round of test was the RT test, with a total of 15 test questions. The test was conducted with E-Prime software, and all participants experienced different degrees of practices before the formal test. Independent sample t-test method is mainly used for data analysis. The results of the experiment showed that the accuracy of the high group in the RT test was significantly lower than that of the low group, while the RT was significantly higher than that of the low group (P

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[V2] 2022-09-03 12:57:58 chinaXiv:202207.00189V2 下载全文
[V1] 2022-07-24 15:36:15 chinaXiv:202207.00189v1 查看此版本 下载全文
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