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1. chinaXiv:202110.00028 [pdf]

新疆水生态文明建设的水资源保护利用策略研究

蔺卿
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

水生态文明建设是新疆干旱区生态文明建设的关键,中国特色社会主义事业“五位一体”总 体布局对生态文明建设做出了战略部署。目前对干旱区水生态文明建设应关注的问题,水资源如 何保障和服务水生态文明建设等问题并不清晰。本文从水生态文明建设的角度综述了干旱区水 资源开发的生态环境效应研究和水生态文明研究,重点探讨了新疆水生态文明建设需坚持的重要 原则,提出了协调经济社会系统和生态系统的水资源保护利用策略。

submitted time 2021-10-10 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits2854Downloads146 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202109.00034 [pdf]

古尔班通古特沙漠短命植物的氮素吸收策略

庄伟伟
Subjects: Biology >> Botany

研究荒漠生态系统同一生活型植物对氮素的利用是否存在生态位分离,有助于深入了解荒漠植物的生存策略,更好掌握氮素对荒漠植物生存的影响。在古尔班通古特沙漠中,广泛分布着4种短命植物尖喙牻牛儿苗(Erodium oxyrrhynchum)、琉苞菊(Hyalea pulchella)、假狼紫草(Nonea caspica)和飘带果(Lactuca undulata),对4种荒漠短命草本植物在不同月份不同土层深度对不同形态氮素的吸收利用进行了研究。结果显示:(1)在不同土层深度,5月4种植物的氮素吸收速率均高于4月的氮素吸收速率;对于不同形态氮素的吸收速率,甘氨酸均低于硝态氮和铵态氮。(2)4月假狼紫草对硝态氮的回收率最高,可达52.3%;5月假狼紫草对铵态氮的回收率最高,可达90.7%。(3)琉苞菊对15N的吸收量低于其他3种植物。(4)4种短命植物不仅可以利用土壤无机氮,还可以有效利用土壤有机氮,且尖喙牻牛儿苗和飘带果对硝态氮有明显的吸收偏好。(5)在古尔班通古特沙漠生态系统中,短命生活型的植物对氮素的吸收能力有着差异和多元化的特点,且均可吸收土壤中的可溶性的有机态氮源。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits2728Downloads219 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202108.00052 [pdf]

NaCl 与干旱双重胁迫下黑果枸杞幼苗对外源水杨酸的生理响应

马永慧; 李永洁; 李进
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

干旱、盐分已成为限制植物生长发育的主要因子,在干旱与 NaCl 双重胁迫下植物的生长发育受到一定影响。为了探究黑果枸杞(Lycium ruthenicum)对盐旱逆境的适应性,该文采用盆栽试验,研究 NaCl 与干旱胁迫共同作用对其幼苗生长的影响,并观察盐旱逆境下黑果枸杞幼苗对外源水杨酸的生理响应,探究提高 NaCl 与干旱胁迫下黑果枸杞幼苗的存活率。结果表明:外源水杨酸(0.1、0.5 mmol·L-1)处理下,黑果枸杞叶内可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白和脯氨酸(Pro)含量有所增加,而丙二醛(MDA)含量显著降低(P<0.05),过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性上升,且 0.5 mmol·L-1水杨酸处理效果优于 0.1 mmol·L-1 处理。综上结果可知,黑果枸杞对于轻度盐旱胁迫具有一定的适应能力,适宜浓度水杨酸可提高盐旱逆境中黑果枸杞叶内渗透调节物质含量及抗氧化酶活性,为进一步了解盐旱双重胁迫下黑果枸杞幼苗的生长发育提供相关理论依据。

submitted time 2021-08-09 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits3616Downloads578 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202107.00024 [pdf]

Projections of temperature extremes based on preferred CMIP5 models: a case study in the Kaidu-Kongqi River basin in Northwest China

CHEN Li; XU Changchun; LI Xiaofei
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The extreme temperature has more outstanding impact on ecology and water resources in arid regions than the average temperature. Using the downscaled daily temperature data from 21 Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) models of NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) and the observation data, this paper analyzed the changes in temporal and spatiotemporal variation of temperature extremes, i.e., the maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin), in the Kaidu-Kongqi River basin in Northwest China over the period 2020–2050 based on the evaluation of preferred Multi-Model Ensemble (MME). Results showed that the Partial Least Square ensemble mean participated by Preferred Models (PM-PLS) was better representing the temporal change and spatial distribution of temperature extremes during 1961–2005 and was chosen to project the future change. In 2020–2050, the increasing rate of Tmax (Tmin) under RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5 will be 2.0 (1.6) times that under RCP4.5, and that of Tmin will be larger than that of Tmax under each corresponding RCP. Tmin will keep contributing more to global warming than Tmax. The spatial distribution characteristics of Tmax and Tmin under the two RCPs will overall the same; but compared to the baseline period (1986–2005), the increments of Tmax and Tmin in plain area will be larger than those in mountainous area. With the emission concentration increased, however, the response of Tmax in mountainous area will be more sensitive than that in plain area, and that of Tmin will be equivalently sensitive in mountainous area and plain area. The impacts induced by Tmin will be universal and far-reaching. Results of spatiotemporal variation of temperature extremes indicate that large increases in the magnitude of warming in the basin may occur in the future. The projections can provide the scientific basis for water and land plan management and disaster prevention and mitigation in the inland river basin.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits482Downloads238 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202105.00010 [pdf]

Characteristics and hazards of different snow avalanche types in a continental snow climate region in the Central Tianshan Mountains

HAO Jiansheng; Richard MIND'JE; LIU Yang; HUANG Farong; ZHOU Hao; LI Lanhai
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Snow avalanches are a common natural hazard in many countries with seasonally snow-covered mountains. The avalanche hazard varies with snow avalanche type in different snow climate regions and at different times. The ability to understand the characteristics of avalanche activity and hazards of different snow avalanche types is a prerequisite for improving avalanche disaster management in the mid-altitude region of the Central Tianshan Mountains. In this study, we collected data related to avalanche, snowpack, and meteorology during four snow seasons (from 2015 to 2019), and analysed the characteristics and hazards of different types of avalanches. The snow climate of the mid-altitude region of the Central Tianshan Mountains was examined using a snow climate classification scheme, and the results showed that the mountain range has a continental snow climate. To quantify the hazards of different types of avalanches and describe their situation over time in the continental snow climate region, this study used the avalanche hazard degree to assess the hazards of four types of avalanches, i.e., full-depth dry snow avalanches, full-depth wet snow avalanches, surface-layer dry snow avalanches, and surface-layer wet snow avalanches. The results indicated that surface-layer dry snow avalanches were characterized by large sizes and high release frequencies, which made them having the highest avalanche hazard degree in the Central Tianshan Mountains with a continental snow climate. The overall avalanche hazard showed a single peak pattern over time during the snow season, and the greatest hazard occurred in the second half of February when the snowpack was deep and the temperature increased. This study can help the disaster and emergency management departments rationally arrange avalanche relief resources and develop avalanche prevention strategies.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2598Downloads470 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202103.00018 [pdf]

喀什地区生态脆弱性时空变化及驱动力分析

李路
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

生态脆弱性评价对认识、保护和改造生态环境,促进人与自然的和谐具有重要意义。为了 合理利用生态资源,在开发建设中保护环境,故研究喀什地区生态脆弱性时空动态变化,为社会经 济与生态保护和谐发展提供科学依据。基于“暴露度-敏感性-恢复力”的评价框架,从自然条件和 人为活动方面选取 13 个指标构建 2000—2016 年喀什地区生态脆弱性评价指标体系,采用空间主 成分方法分析喀什地区生态脆弱性等级的时空变化,并用地理探测器模型分析其驱动因素。结果 表明:喀什地区北部区域生态脆弱性高于南部地区,高度脆弱区面积增多且集中在叶尔羌河中下 游和喀什噶尔河下游,脆弱性呈现整体增加并向东北方向转移。2000—2016 年喀什地区各县市生 态脆弱性最低值在塔什库尔干塔吉克自治县,其次为喀什市和泽普县,均属于微度脆弱;最高的是 莎车县、伽师县和巴楚县,属于高度脆弱地区。气温、地形和植被覆盖度因素造成喀什地区南北地 带生态脆弱性空间分异;耕地面积、牲畜头数的增长引起景观破碎度变大,与区域恶劣的自然环境 相互耦合加重了喀什地区的生态脆弱性,导致了喀什地区整体生态环境脆弱性向东北方向扩大。

submitted time 2021-03-03 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits1668Downloads601 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202103.00063 [pdf]

塔里木河下游水生态安全评价及驱动要素分析

李梦怡; 邓铭江; 凌红波; 王光焰; 徐生武
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Other Disciplines of Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences

随着塔里木河流域水资源统一管理不断加强,塔里木河下游生态输水量增加,生态保护取得了阶段性成效。然而,水资源严格管理下的塔里木河下游水生态安全状况及变化过程如何,相关研究缺乏科学的评估。对此,本文利用塔里木河下游2000—2017年的水量、监测断面地下水埋深、胡杨新增生物量、植被覆盖度、干旱指数等指标数据,运用主成分分析法和综合指数法评价了其水生态安全状况,揭示了影响水生态安全的驱动要素及其变化特点。结果表明:2000—2017年,塔里木河下游的水生态安全综合评价指数由3.91上升到8.47,生态安全水平不断提高,经历了从中度警示区到较安全区的变化过程。影响水生态安全评价的主要要素是水文驱动要素和植被驱动要素,其中下泄水量、地下水埋深和植被多样性对下游水生态安全影响显著。以上研究为优化塔里木河下游生态输水模式提供重要的科学依据。

submitted time 2021-03-02 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits491Downloads274 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202102.00062 [pdf]

新时期新疆水库大坝建设的主要问题与对策建议

李江; 柳莹
Subjects: Geosciences >> Hydrology

截止 2018 年,全疆(含兵团)已建、在建及拟建水库 722 座(包括电站水库),总库容 295.0 × 108 m3。有力地改善了水资源调控和利用效率,在灌溉、供水、防洪、发电、旅游等方面发挥了极其 重要的作用。新时期按照水利部“水利工程补短板、水利行业强监管”的工作总基调,针对南北疆 水资源配置不平衡问题、水资源利用不充分问题,谋划提出了兴建数十座大中型山区水库,以及提 升已建水库大坝信息化管理水平、加强水库调度运行管理,在满足生态需水的前提下统筹生活、生 产供水,最大程度发挥水库效益、确保水库安全运行。针对新时期气候变化条件下水库洪水风险 分析、大坝建设需要重点关注的几项关键技术、山区水库替代平原水库、河流健康与生态调度、水库 清淤与能力提升、水库信息化与智能调度以及延长服役期等问题进行了探讨,提出若干对策建议。

submitted time 2021-02-13 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits463Downloads325 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202101.00029 [pdf]

天山北坡经济带“三生空间”发展格局 与智能水网体系建设

邓铭江
Subjects: Geosciences >> Hydrology

天山北坡经济带是新疆生产力集中度较高,现代工业、农业、交通信息、教育科技等较为发达的区域,是国家丝绸之路经济带建设的核心区,对新疆经济社会发展具有重要的带动和辐射作用,国内生产总值均占全疆 53%以上,工业增加值占全疆 67%,城镇化率 68.9%,远高于全疆 42.1%的平均水平,然而水资源却仅占11%。为破解资源性缺水困境而实施的“两河调水”工程正在陆续建成发挥效益,如何优化配置原水与客水、高水与低水、地表水与地下水等各种水源,统筹协调区域、城乡、兵地、产业、经济社会与生态环境等各种需求,已成为亟待研究决策的重大现实问题。通过分析天北带水资源可利用量、生态环境需水量、水资源开发利用现状及存在问题,结合调水工程新增水量,提出了水资源优化配置的原则、贯彻新时期“十六字”治水思路和“五大”发展理念的实践路径与综合调控措施,主要学术观点和结论为:(1)结合“两河调水”工程,在天山北坡建设东西连通的输水大通道,将由南向北流的逐条河流交叉连接起来,形成一个南北交汇,东西贯通,覆盖整个区域的“大水网”,实现全域水源优化配置。(2)按照“以水定地,以水定产,以水定城,适水发展”的原则,强化国土空间管控,按照“生产空间集约高效,生活空间宜居适度,生态空间自然和谐”为原则,优化“三生空间”发展格局。(3)打破旱区弱水资源承载力、高生态胁迫压力、低经济发展能力的桎梏,从水资源—经济社会—生态环境三个维度,科学把控“大水网”建设和水利发展定位,合理配置“三生用水”,耦合协调“三生关系”,实现生态保护和高质量发展。(4)面向未来和新基建工程的喷涌发展,建设水物理网、水信息网、水管理网“三网合一”的智能水网势在必行,代表智慧水利的发展方向,也是当代水利科技前沿。

submitted time 2021-01-06 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits733Downloads506 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202010.00027 [pdf]

Evaluating agricultural water-use efficiency based on water footprint of crop values: a case study in Xinjiang of China

HAI Yang; LONG Aihua; ZHANG Pei; DENG Xiaoya; LI Junfeng; DENG Mingjiang
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

Efficient agricultural water use is crucial for food safety and water conservation on a global scale. To quantitatively investigate the agricultural water-use efficiency in regions exhibiting the complex agricultural structure, this study developed an indicator named water footprint of crop values (WFV) that is based on the water footprint of crop production. Defined as the water volume used to produce a unit price of crop (m3/CNY), the new indicator makes it feasible to directly compare the water footprint of different crops from an economic perspective, so as to comprehensively evaluate the water-use efficiency under the complex planting structure. On the basis of WFV, the study further proposed an indicator of structural water-use coefficient (SWUC), which is represented by the ratio of water-use efficiency for a given planting structure to the water efficiency for a reference crop and can quantitatively describe the impact of planting structure on agricultural water efficiency. Then, a case study was implemented in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The temporal and spatial variations of WFV were assessed for the planting industries in 14 prefectures and cities of Xinjiang between 1991 and 2015. In addition, contribution rate analysis of WFV for different prefectures and cities was conducted to evaluate the variations of WFV caused by different influencing factors: agricultural input, climatic factors, and planting structure. Results from these analyses indicated first that the average WFV of planting industries in Xinjiang significantly decreased from 0.293 m3/CNY in 1991 to 0.153 m3/CNY in 2015, corresponding to an average annual change rate of –3.532%. WFV in 13 prefectures and cities (with the exception of Karamay) has declined significantly during the period of 1991–2015, indicating that agricultural water-use efficient has effectively improved. Second, the average SWUC in Xinjiang decreased from 1.17 to 1.08 m3/CNY in the 1990s, and then declined to 1.00 m3/CNY in 2011–2015. The value of SWUC was highly consistent with the relative value of WFV in most prefectures and cities, showing that planting structure is one of the primary factors affecting regional agricultural water-use efficiency. Third, the contribution rate of WFV variations from human factors including agricultural input and planting structure was much more significant than that from climatic factors. However, the distribution of agricultural input and the adjustment of planting structure significantly differed among prefectures and cities, suggesting regional imbalances of agricultural development. This study indicated the feasibility and effectiveness of controlling agricultural water use through increasing technical input and rational selection of crops in the face of impending climate change. Specifically, we concluded that, the rational application of chemical fertilizers, the development of the fruit industry, and the strict restriction of the cotton industry should be implemented to improve the agricultural water-use efficiency in Xinjiang.

submitted time 2020-10-20 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits8533Downloads825 Comment 0

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