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  • 儿童青少年同伴侵害与内化问题的双向关系:纵向研究的元分析

    分类: 心理学 >> 发展心理学 分类: 心理学 >> 教育心理学 提交时间: 2022-02-08

    摘要:

    本研究采用元分析技术探讨儿童青少年同伴侵害与内化问题的纵向关系,检验人际风险模型、症状驱动模型与相互作用模型在两者关系中的适用性。共纳入89篇文献,包含99个独立效应量,涉及被试70598人。随机效应模型分析结果表明,同伴侵害可以预测内化问题(β = 0.097, 95% CI [0.083, 0.110]),内化问题对同伴侵害也存在预测作用(β = 0.119, 95% CI [0.104, 0.135]),结果支持同伴侵害与内化问题的相互作用模型。同伴侵害对内化问题的预测作用中,年龄与侵害类型存在调节效应,测量时间间隔、侵害类型、评定方式与问题类型在内化问题对同伴侵害的预测中起调节作用,中西文化类型在两者相互预测模型中均不存在调节作用,各调节因素在同伴侵害及其亚类型外显侵害、关系侵害与内化问题双向关系中的作用基本一致。

  • Land degradation sensitivity assessment and convergence analysis in Korla of Xinjiang, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地球科学史 提交时间: 2020-10-20 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:Land degradation has a major impact on environmental and socio-economic sustainability. Scientific methods are necessary to monitor the risk of land degradation. In this study, the environmental sensitive area index (ESAI) was utilized to assess land degradation sensitivity and convergence analysis in Korla, a typical oasis city in Xinjiang of China, which is located on the northeast border of the Tarim Basin. A total of 18 indicators depicting soil, climate, vegetation, and management qualities were used to illustrate spatial-temporal patterns of land degradation sensitivity from 1994 to 2018. We investigated the causes of spatial convergence and divergence based on the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models. The results show that the branch of the Tianshan Mountains and oasis plain had a low sensitivity to land degradation, while the Tarim Basin had a high risk of land degradation. More than two-thirds of the study area can be categorized as "critical" sensitivity classes. The largest percentage (32.6%) of fragile classes was observed for 2006. There was no significant change in insensitive or low-sensitivity areas, which accounted for less than 0.4% of the entire observation period. The ESAI of the four time periods (1994–1998, 1998–2006, 2006–2010, and 2010–2018) formed a series of convergence patterns. The convergence patterns of 1994–1998 and 1998–2006 can be explained by the government's efforts to "Returning Farmland to Forests" and other governance projects. In 2006–2010, the construction of afforested work intensified, but industrial development and human activities affected the convergence pattern. The pattern of convergence in most regions between 2010 and 2018 can be attributed to the government's implementation of a series of key ecological protection projects, which led to a decrease in sensitivity to land degradation. The results of this study altogether suggest that the ESAI convergence analysis is an effective early warning method for land degradation sensitivity.

  • Hierarchical responses of soil organic and inorganic carbon dynamics to soil acidification in a dryland agroecosystem, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地球科学史 提交时间: 2018-09-18 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Soil acidification is a major global issue of sustainable development for ecosystems. The increasing soil acidity induced by excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization in farmlands has profoundly impacted the soil carbon dynamics. However, the way in which changes in soil pH regulating the soil carbon dynamics in a deep soil profile is still not well elucidated. In this study, through a 12-year field N fertilization experiment with three N fertilizer treatments (0, 120, and 240 kg N/(hm2•a)) in a dryland agroecosystem of China, we explored the soil pH changes over a soil profile up to a depth of 200 cm and determined the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) to the changed soil pH. Using a generalized additive model, we identified the soil depth intervals with the most powerful statistical relationships between changes in soil pH and soil carbon dynamics. Hierarchical responses of SOC and SIC dynamics to soil acidification were found. The results indicate that the changes in soil pH explained the SOC dynamics well by using a non-linear relationship at the soil depth of 0–80 cm (P=0.006), whereas the changes in soil pH were significantly linearly correlated with SIC dynamics at the 100–180 cm soil depth (P=0.015). After a long-term N fertilization in the experimental field, the soil pH value decreased in all three N fertilizer treatments. Furthermore, the declines in soil pH in the deep soil layer (100–200 cm) were significantly greater (P=0.035) than those in the upper soil layer (0–80 cm). These results indicate that soil acidification in the upper soil layer can transfer excess protons to the deep soil layer, and subsequently, the structural heterogeneous responses of SOC and SIC to soil acidification were identified because of different buffer capacities for the SOC and SIC. To better estimate the effects of soil acidification on soil carbon dynamics, we suggest that future investigations for soil acidification should be extended to a deeper soil depth, e.g., 200 cm.

  • 生猪规模养殖户污染防治行为的心理认知及环境规制影响效应

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 农业基础学科 提交时间: 2017-11-08 合作期刊: 《中国生态农业学报》

    摘要:从微观层面厘清生猪规模养殖户污染防治的行为逻辑, 对宏观层面优化畜禽养殖污染治理具有重要驱动作用。为分析养殖户的无害化处理和资源化利用行为的影响因素, 本文以福建省406个生猪规模养殖户为研究对象, 运用结构方程模型分析养殖户心理认知对其污染防治行为的影响, 并通过层次分析模型检验环境规制对心理认知-防治行为的调节效应。结果表明: 1)生猪规模养殖户的污染防治行为是其在心理认知的显著正向影响下, 并由环境规制的综合调节而形成的理性选择; 2)养殖户的污染防治行为决策源于其对责任意识、生态理性、治污能力自我评估等的认知, 是对其他养殖户的参照和对政府、非养殖户环境诉求的积极响应, 也是规避风险的理性选择。3)激励性和引导性措施是对约束性环境规制的重要补充, 约束性规制措施对无害化处理行为具有更显著的调节效应, 激励性规制对资源化利用行为更具调节作用, 引导性规制对污染防治行为具有综合调节效应。4)据此, 提出加强对市场激励性规制和村规民约等非正式制度手段的应用, 充分考虑养殖户对生猪养殖的依赖性及其污染防治的行为控制能力, 兼用引导弃养、产业转移扶持和警示惩戒手段等促进生猪规模养殖污染防治的建议。

  • Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Coordination Complex Based on Fluorescein

    分类: 化学 >> 物理化学 提交时间: 2017-11-05 合作期刊: 《结构化学》

    摘要:A novel coordination complex, {[Cd2(C20H10O5)2(H2O)4]·10H2O}n, has been synthesized based on fluorescein (2-(6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl) benzoic acid) and systematically characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectrum, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P2/n with a = 20.428(5), b = 8.084(2), c = 21.689(5) Å, β = 96.360(5)º, Mr = 993.46, V = 3559.7(15) Å3, Z = 4, Dx = 1.845 g/cm3, μ = 1.276 mm-1, F(000) = 1974.0, GOOF = 1.044, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073 Å, the final R = 0.0553 and wR = 0.1720 for 7245 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I).