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1. chinaXiv:202107.00019 [pdf]

A study on historical location and evolution of Lop Nor in China with maps and DEM

ZHANG Tingting; SHAO Yun; GENG Yuyang; GONG Huaze; YANG Lan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Lop Sea, located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China, dried up permanently, which is the terminal lake of the Tarim River. Lop Sea was considered as the lake basin of Lop Nor since Quaternary. However, the possibility that Lop Nor was away from the Lop Sea in historical time is crucial to be discussed to interpret the proxy records in sediment profiles. To obtain a general view of the evolution of Lop Nor and Lop Sea in a historical period, several approaches were adopted in this paper. First, the Qianlong Thirteen-Row Atlas, an ancient imperial atlas of the Qing Dynasty, which was completed around 1760, indicated that the Tarim River formed a relatively large lake at its modern upstream region. Second, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a 10-m spatial resolution and a relative precision of 0.42 m was derived from TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X satellite image pairs using the interferometry method, which was verified using ICESat-GLAS laser footprints and a local DEM acquired by a drone. Finally, based on the spatial analysis of historical documents, expedition reports, sediment profiles and archaeological evidence, it can be deduced that the lacustrine deposition was discontinued in the Lop Sea. Six episodes in the evolutionary history of the drainage system in eastern Tarim Basin were summarized. The proved depositional condition variations could be used for future interpretation of proxy records in sediment. The high-accurate DEM provided a reference for the location of further fieldwork in the Lop Sea. The method proposed in this paper may be efficient for the research of inland lakes or rivers in global arid regions.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits499Downloads240 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202107.00021 [pdf]

Assessment of organic compost and biochar in promoting phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil using Calendula officinalis in the Loess Plateau, China

WANG Jincheng; JING Mingbo; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Gaosen; ZHANG Binglin; LIU Guangxiu; CHEN Tuo; ZHAO Zhiguang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The Loess Plateau, located in Gansu Province, is an important energy base in China because most of the oil and gas resources are distributed in Gansu Province. In the last 40 a, ecological environment in this region has been extremely destroyed due to the over-exploitation of crude-oil resources. Remediation of crude-oil contaminated soil in this area remains to be a challenging task. In this study, in order to elucidate the effects of organic compost and biochar on phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil (20 g/kg) by Calendula officinalis, we designed five treatments, i.e., natural attenuation (CK), planted C. officinalis only (P), planted C. officinalis with biochar amendment (PB), planted C. officinalis with organic compost amendment (PC), and planted C. officinalis with co-amendment of biochar and organic compost (PBC). After 152 d of cultivation, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal rates of CK, P, PB, PC and PBC were 6.36%, 50.08%, 39.58%, 73.10% and 59.87%, respectively. Shoot and root dry weights of C. officinalis significantly increased by 172.31% and 80.96% under PC and 311.61% and 145.43% under PBC, respectively as compared with P (P<0.05). Total chlorophyll contents in leaves of C. officinalis under P, PC and PBC significantly increased by 77.36%, 125.50% and 79.80%, respectively (P<0.05) as compared with PB. Physical-chemical characteristics and enzymatic activity of soil in different treatments were also assessed. The highest total N, total P, available N, available P and SOM (soil organic matter) occurred in PC, followed by PBC (P<0.05). C. officinalis rhizospheric soil dehydrogenase (DHA) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in PB were lower than those of other treatments (P<0.05). The values of ACE (abundance-based coverage estimators) and Chao 1 indices for rhizospheric bacteria were the highest under PC followed by PBC, P, PB and CK (P<0.05). However, the Shannon index for bacteria was the highest under PC and PBC, followed by P, PB and CK (P<0.05). In terms of soil microbial community composition, Proteiniphilum, Immundisolibacteraceae and Solimonadaceae were relatively more abundant under PC and PBC. Relative abundances of Pseudallescheria, Ochroconis, Fusarium, Sarocladium, Podospora, Apodus, Pyrenochaetopsis and Schizothecium under PC and PBC were higher, while relative abundances of Gliomastix, Aspergillus and Alternaria were lower under PC and PBC. As per the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis, application of organic compost significantly promoted soil N and P contents, shoot length, root vitality, chlorophyll ratio, total chlorophyll, abundance and diversity of rhizospheric soil microbial community in C. officinalis. A high pH value and lower soil N and P contents induced by biochar, altered C. officinalis rhizospheric soil microbial community composition, which might have restrained its phytoremediation efficiency. The results suggest that organic compost-assisted C. officinalis phytoremediation for crude-oil contaminated soil was highly effective in the Loess Plateau, China.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits162Downloads70 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202107.00022 [pdf]

Large scale sand saltation over hard surface: a controlled experiment in still air

LIU Benli; WANG Zhaoyun; NIU Baicheng; QU Jianjun
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Saltation is the major particle movement type in wind erosion process. Saltating sand grains can rebound up to tens of times larger in length and height over hard surface (such as gravel surface) than over loose sand surface. Gravels usually have different faces, causing distinct response of the impacting grains, but the effects of the grain and gravel-surface contact angle on grain rebound are not yet well quantified. We performed full-range controlled experiments of grain saltation using different contact angles, grain sizes and impact speeds in still air, to show that contact angle increases the height of representative saltation path but decreases particle travel length. The results were compared with outputs from the COMprehensive numerical model of SALTation (COMSALT). Large saltation height of 4.8 m and length of 9.0 m were recorded. The maximum and representative saltation height over the gravel surface were found to be about 4.9 times and 12.8 times those over the loose sandy surface, respectively. The maximum saltation length may be reduced by 58% and the representative saltation height may be increased by 77% as contact angle increases from 20° to 40°. We further showed that the collision inertia contributes 60% of the saltation length, and wind contributes to the other 40%. These quantitative findings have important implications for modeling saltation trajectory over gravel surface.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits192Downloads98 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202107.00025 [pdf]

Adaptability of machine learning methods and hydrological models to discharge simulations in data-sparse glaciated watersheds

JI Huiping; CHEN Yaning; FANG Gonghuan; LI Zhi; DUAN Weili; ZHANG Qifei
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The accurate simulation and prediction of runoff in alpine glaciated watersheds is of increasing importance for the comprehensive management and utilization of water resources. In this study, long short-term memory (LSTM), a state-of-the-art artificial neural network algorithm, is applied to simulate the daily discharge of two data-sparse glaciated watersheds in the Tianshan Mountains in Central Asia. Two other classic machine learning methods, namely extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) and support vector regression (SVR), along with a distributed hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and an extended SWAT model (SWAT_Glacier) are also employed for comparison. This paper aims to provide an efficient and reliable method for simulating discharge in glaciated alpine regions that have insufficient observed meteorological data. The two typical basins in this study are the main tributaries (the Kumaric and Toxkan rivers) of the Aksu River in the south Tianshan Mountains, which are dominated by snow and glacier meltwater and precipitation. Our comparative analysis indicates that simulations from the LSTM shows the best agreement with the observations. The performance metrics Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) and correlation coefficient (R2) of LSTM are higher than 0.90 in both the training and testing periods in the Kumaric River Basin, and NS and R2 are also higher than 0.70 in the Toxkan River Basin. Compared to classic machine learning algorithms, LSTM shows significant advantages over most evaluating indices. XGBoost also has high NS value in the training period, but is prone to overfitting the discharge. Compared with the widely used hydrological models, LSTM has advantages in predicting accuracy, despite having fewer data inputs. Moreover, LSTM only requires meteorological data rather than physical characteristics of underlying data. As an extension of SWAT, the SWAT_Glacier model shows good adaptability in discharge simulation, outperforming the original SWAT model, but at the cost of increasing the complexity of the model. Compared with the oftentimes complex semi-distributed physical hydrological models, the LSTM method not only eliminates the tedious calibration process of hydrological parameters, but also significantly reduces the calculation time and costs. Overall, LSTM shows immense promise in dealing with scarce meteorological data in glaciated catchments.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits187Downloads87 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202107.00041 [pdf]

Stratigraphical significance of Ulantatal sequence (Nei Mongol, China) in refining the latest Eocene and Oligocene terrestrial regional stages

Joonas WASILJEFF; ZHANG Zhao-Qun
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Robust regional chronostratigraphic framework is the basis of understanding climatic and faunal events in the geologic history. One of the most dramatic faunal turnovers of the past 50 million years in Asia is linked to the Eocene–Oligocene Transition (EOT) at about 34 Ma. However, the chronostratigraphic relationships between faunal modulation and geologic events associated with the EOT in China have remained uncertain before and after the epoch boundaries, mainly due to the scarcity of continuous records and problems in correlating and subdividing the classic areas containing abundant mammalian fossils. Past decades have seen developments in establishing Chinese regional Paleogene Land Mammal Ages, and albeit many ages are well constrained, some, such as those of the latest Eocene and the Oligocene, have remained unsettled. In this paper, we present how recent evidence from the fossiliferous Ulantatal sequence, Nei Mongol, China, provides better constraints to the latest Eocene and Oligocene Chinese Land Mammal ages (Baiyinian, Ulantatalian, and Tabenbulukian). We propose Ulantatal sequence as a new regional unit stratotype section of the Ulantatalian stage, and the lower boundary of Tabenbulukian stage to be reassigned to Chron C9r (27.7 Ma), with the lowest occurrence of Sinolagomys as the marker horizon.

submitted time 2021-07-21 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits39Downloads18 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201907.00003 [pdf]

Sub-parallel ridge-trench interaction and an alternative model for the Silurian-Devonian archipelago in Western Junggar and North-Central Tianshan in NW China

Zhang, Ji'en; Chen, Yichao; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wakabayashi, John; Windley, Brian F.; Yin, Jiyuan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Plate boundary evolution and interpreted paleogeography commonly involve the interaction between oceanic ridges and trenches. Western Junggar and Central-North Tianshan, NW China, have previously been regarded as independent orogens, but this model was challenged by the discovery of their similar tropic-subtropic coral assemblages and of Precambrian and Early Paleozoic clasts transmitted from the Central Tianshan in Early to Middle Paleozoic sediments in SW Junggar, suggesting they had been in contact by then. The presence of Late Silurian-Early Devonian adakitic rocks in northern SW Junggar was explained by slab roll-back, which required an active subducting slab in SW Junggar. However, this model is inconsistent with the cessation of arc magmatism immediately after the adakitic magmatism indicating there was no subduction in SW Junggar at those times. By re-evaluating the relevance of four diagnostic features of modern Californian ridge subduction, we propose a new model to explain the Late Silurian-Early Devonian orogenic framework of NW China in terms of sub-parallel ridge-trench interaction. The transmitted clasts from Central Tianshan in Early Paleozoic sediments in SW Junggar, at the same time as the Late Ordovician and Middle Silurian coral assemblages, and the complementary accretionary complex in SW Junggar and magmatic arc in Central Tianshan, are all contributary evidence for an Early Paleozoic subduction system. This subduction zone was intruded by two 446-380 Ma double magmatic belts: 1. A ridge subduction-generated adakitic gabbro-basalt-andesite-diorite-granite-rhyolite suite that intruded a 504-446 Ma accretionary complex in SW Junggar, and 2. a magmatic arc in Central Tianshan. A buoyant subducting ridge rifted and separated these magmatic belts resulting in the opening of a new 414-325 Ma ocean, which is preserved in OIB- and MORB-type ophiolites in SW Junggar and North Tianshan. These geological and geochemical relationships resemble those generated by oceanic spreading in the modern Gulf of California, which led to separation of magmatic belts in Baja California and mainland Mexico. The new ocean split the Central Tianshan magmatic arc from the Early Paleozoic Mt. Xiemisitai-Barleik-Mayile accretionary complex in SW Junggar, which changed to a new passive continental margin that led to deposition of Devonian shallow marine-terrestrial sediments, and to cessation of magmatism at 379-349 Ma. These features, including the Middle Paleozoic orogenic architecture and the geochemical properties of specific magmatic rocks, indicate the development of a Late Silurian-Early Devonian sub-parallel-to-trench ridge subduction. This model not only interprets phenomena mentioned in the above earlier models, but also reconciles unresolved spatial relationships between Western Junggar and the Tianshan. Subsequent closure of the new ocean and subduction of its ridge in the Late Paleozoic gave rise to the archipelagic framework that we see today in NW China. An analysis of worldwide examples of sub-parallel ridge-trench interaction demonstrates that a ridge can undergo multiple episodes of subduction before a terminal ocean closure. In this context our new tectonic model for the western Junggar and Tianshan regions may provide an improved understanding of the structure and evolution of ridge-subduction events in ancient orogenic belts.

submitted time 2021-06-22 Hits7129Downloads1238 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202106.00103 [pdf]

A juvenile skull of the longirostrine choristodere (Diapsida:Choristodera), Mengshanosaurus minimus gen. et sp. nov.,with comments on neochoristodere ontogeny

YUAN Meng; LI Da-Qing; Daniel T. KSEPKA; YI Hong-Yu
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Choristoderes were an important clade of semi-aquatic predators that occupied Laurasian freshwater ecosystems from the Middle Jurassic to the Miocene. During the Early Cretaceous, the neochoristodere lineage evolved large size and long snouts, converging on the body plan of modern crocodilians. Here, we describe a new longirostrine choristodere, Mengshanosaurus minimus gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous Mengyin Formation of Shandong Province, China. The holotype is the smallest reported neochoristodere individual, with a skull length of only 35 mm. The poorly ossified braincase, along with retention of a fontanel at the frontal-parietal suture, indicates this individual was a juvenile. Phylogenetic analyses recovered Mengshanosaurus as a neochoristodere, a placement supported by the presence of a single narial opening, fusion of the nasals, and expansion of the temporal fenestrae. In the Neochoristodera, Mengshanosaurus is sister to a clade consisting of Ikechosaurus, Tchoiria, Simoedosaurus, and Champsosaurus. It differs from other neochoristoderes in having the lacrimal foramen between the prefrontal and lacrimal, in addition to having large vomerine teeth (exceeding one-third the width of corresponding maxillary teeth). The closely arranged marginal teeth and large vomerine teeth suggest juvenile choristoderes may have fed on invertebrates and insects, similar to juveniles of modern crocodilians. However, the observation that very young neochoristoderes had similar skull proportions and marginal tooth shapes to adults, along with features suggesting a more fully aquatic ecology, suggest that neochoristoderes exhibited less pronounced ontogenetic niche shifts than modern crocodilians.

submitted time 2021-06-21 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3087Downloads247 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202106.00010 [pdf]

Potential responses of vegetation to atmospheric aerosols in arid and semi-arid regions of Asia

JIAO Linlin; WANG Xunming; CAI Diwen; HUA Ting
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Changes in atmospheric aerosols have profound effects on ecosystem productivity, vegetation growth and activity by directly and indirectly influencing climate and environment conditions. However, few studies have focused on the effects of atmospheric aerosols on vegetation growth and activity in the vulnerable arid and semi-arid regions, which are also the source areas of aerosols. Using the datasets of aerosol optical depth (AOD), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and multiple climatic variables including photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), surface solar radiation (SSR), surface air temperature (TEM) and total precipitation (PRE), we analyzed the potential responses of vegetation activity to atmospheric aerosols and their associated climatic factors in arid and semi-arid regions of Asia from 2005 to 2015. Our results suggested that areas with decreasing growing-season NDVI were mainly observed in regions with relatively sparse vegetation coverage, while AOD tended to increase as NDVI decreased in these regions. Upon further analysis, we found that aerosols might exert a negative influence on vegetation activity by reducing SSR, PAR and TEM, as well as suppressing PRE in most arid and semi-arid regions of Asia. Moreover, the responses of atmospheric aerosols on vegetation activity varied among different growing stages. At the early growing stage, higher concentration of aerosol was accompanied with suppressed vegetation growth by enhancing cooling effects and reducing SSR and PAR. At the middle growing stage, aerosols tended to alter microphysical properties of clouds with suppressed PRE, thereby restricting vegetation growth. At the late growing stage, aerosols exerted significantly positive influences on vegetation activity by increasing SSR, PAR and TEM in regions with high anthropogenic aerosols. Overall, at different growing stages, aerosols could influence vegetation activity by changing different climatic factors including SSR, PAR, TEM and PRE in arid and semi-arid regions of Asia. This study not only clarifies the impacts of aerosols on vegetation activity in source areas, but also explains the roles of aerosols in climate.

submitted time 2021-06-04 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5305Downloads587 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202106.00015 [pdf]

Spatiotemporal analysis of drought variability based on the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index in the Koshi River Basin, Nepal

Nirmal M DAHAL; XIONG Donghong; Nilhari NEUPANE; Belayneh YIGEZ; ZHANG Baojun; YUAN Yong; Saroj KOIRALA; LIU Lin; FANG Yiping
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Drought is an inevitable condition with negative impacts in the agricultural and climatic sectors, especially in developing countries. This study attempts to examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of drought and its trends in the Koshi River Basin (KRB) in Nepal, using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) over the period from 1987 to 2017. The Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the trends of the SPEI values. The study illustrated the increasing annual and seasonal drought trends in the KRB over the study period. Spatially, the hill region of the KRB showed substantial increasing drought trends at the annual and seasonal scales, especially in summer and winter. The mountain region also showed a significant increasing drought trend in winter. The drought characteristic analysis indicated that the maximum duration, intensity, and severity of drought events were observed in the KRB after 2000. The Terai region presented the highest drought frequency and intensity, while the hill region presented the longest maximum drought duration. Moreover, the spatial extent of drought showed a significant increasing trend in the hill region at the monthly (drought station proportion of 7.6%/10a in August), seasonal (drought station proportion of 7.2%/10a in summer), and annual (drought station proportion of 6.7%/10a) scales. The findings of this study can assist local governments, planners, and project implementers in understanding drought and developing appropriate mitigation strategies to cope with its impacts.

submitted time 2021-06-04 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2637Downloads302 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202105.00010 [pdf]

Characteristics and hazards of different snow avalanche types in a continental snow climate region in the Central Tianshan Mountains

HAO Jiansheng; Richard MIND'JE; LIU Yang; HUANG Farong; ZHOU Hao; LI Lanhai
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Snow avalanches are a common natural hazard in many countries with seasonally snow-covered mountains. The avalanche hazard varies with snow avalanche type in different snow climate regions and at different times. The ability to understand the characteristics of avalanche activity and hazards of different snow avalanche types is a prerequisite for improving avalanche disaster management in the mid-altitude region of the Central Tianshan Mountains. In this study, we collected data related to avalanche, snowpack, and meteorology during four snow seasons (from 2015 to 2019), and analysed the characteristics and hazards of different types of avalanches. The snow climate of the mid-altitude region of the Central Tianshan Mountains was examined using a snow climate classification scheme, and the results showed that the mountain range has a continental snow climate. To quantify the hazards of different types of avalanches and describe their situation over time in the continental snow climate region, this study used the avalanche hazard degree to assess the hazards of four types of avalanches, i.e., full-depth dry snow avalanches, full-depth wet snow avalanches, surface-layer dry snow avalanches, and surface-layer wet snow avalanches. The results indicated that surface-layer dry snow avalanches were characterized by large sizes and high release frequencies, which made them having the highest avalanche hazard degree in the Central Tianshan Mountains with a continental snow climate. The overall avalanche hazard showed a single peak pattern over time during the snow season, and the greatest hazard occurred in the second half of February when the snowpack was deep and the temperature increased. This study can help the disaster and emergency management departments rationally arrange avalanche relief resources and develop avalanche prevention strategies.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2299Downloads281 Comment 0

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