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1. chinaXiv:201703.00248 [pdf]

An Extension of a Complete Model-Based Decomposition of Polarimetric SAR Data

Zhu, Feiya; Zhang, Yunhua; Li, Dong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

The model-based decomposition that originated from Freeman-Durden three-component decomposition (FDD) has been widely applied in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data processing for its clear physical interpretation and easy implementation. Numerous improvements have been proposed to settle the twomain drawbacks of FDD, i.e., the incomplete utilization of the polarimetric information in the coherency matrix and the negative scattering power problem. Recently, Cui et al. proposed a complete model-based three-component decomposition which successfully settled the two aforementioned drawbacks. However, the three scattering components' powers are not totally derived using scattering models, and the remaining coherency matrix (RCM) obtained by subtracting the volume scattering component from the coherency matrix is not consistent with the models of surface and double-bounce scattering components. As an extension of Cui's method, this letter is dedicated to develop a novel method to discriminate the surface and double-bounce scattering components both using scattering models. With the orientation angle (OA) variation and helix angle (HA) variation compensated for the RCM, the RCM is automatically consistent with the models of surface and double-scattering components. The OA variation and HA variation compensation for the RCMis done by unitary transformations of the eigenvectors of the RCM. The powers of surface and double-bounce scattering components are positive. The effectiveness of the proposedmethod is demonstrated by processing the real PolSAR data.

submitted time 2017-03-10 Hits2428Downloads1385 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201612.00202 [pdf]

HY-2A Altimeter Time Tag Bias Estimation Using Reconstructive Transponder

Junzhi Wan; Wei Guo; Fei Zhao; Caiyun Wang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

Independent clocks provide time tags for the precision orbit determination (POD) equipment and the radar altimeter onboard the HY-2A satellite, and a bias between POD data' time tag and corresponding range observation's time tag from the HY-2A altimeter exists. The time tag bias contributes a bias in the sea surface height observation due to the nonzero time rate of change of the HY-2A altimeter's height. A transponder for in-orbit radar altimeter calibration provides an approach to estimate the time tag bias. The altimeter receives the responding signals from the transponder and generates ranges. Pertinent reference ranges are obtained fromthe POD data and the transponder's coordinate. Using the ranges from the radar altimeter and the reference ranges, the time tag bias between the POD data and the altimeter observations can be estimated. During an in situ HY-2A altimeter calibration campaign using a reconstructive transponder from August 9, 2012, to July 20, 2014, 17 estimations of the altimeter's time tag bias were obtained. The preliminary results are presented in this letter.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits2963Downloads1297 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201612.00198 [pdf]

An improved method to derive to equivalent current systems from global MHD simulations

Zhang JiaoJiao; Wang Chi; Tang BinBin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

Derivation of equivalent current systems (ECS) from a global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is very useful in studying magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, ground induction effects, and space weather forecast. In this study we introduce an improved method to derive the ECS from a global MHD model, which takes account of the obliqueness of the magnetic field lines. By comparing the ECS derived from this improved method and the previous method, we find that the main characteristics of the ECS derived from the two methods are generally consistent with each other, but the eastward-westward component of the geomagnetic perturbation calculated from the ECS derived from the improved method is much stronger than that from the previous method. We then compare the geomagnetic perturbation as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle calculated from the ECS derived from both methods with the observations. The comparison indicates that the improved method can improve the performance of the simulation. Furthermore, it is found that the incomplete counterbalance of the geomagnetic effect produced by the ionospheric poloidal current and field-aligned current (FAC) contributes to most of the eastward-westward component of geomagnetic perturbation.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits2249Downloads911 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201605.01809 [pdf]

BMP2-SMAD Signaling Represses the Proliferation of Embryonic Neural Stem Cells through YAP

Yao, Minghui; Wang, Yadong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Zengqiang; Yao, Minghui; Xu, Zhiheng; Jiao, Jianwei; Wang, Yadong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Neurosciences

Previous studies have shown that the Hippo pathway effector yes-associated protein (YAP) plays an important role in maintaining stem cell proliferation. However, the precise molecular mechanism of YAP in regulating murine embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) remains largely unknown. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) treatment inhibited the proliferation of mouse embryonic NSCs, that YAP was critical for mouse NSC proliferation, and that BMP2 treatment-induced inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation was abrogated by YAP knockdown, indicating that the YAP protein mediates the inhibitory effect of BMP2 signaling. Additionally, we found that BMP2 treatment reduced YAP nuclear translocation, YAP-TEAD interaction, and YAP-mediated transactivation. BMP2 treatment inhibited YAP/TEAD-mediated Cyclin D1 (ccnd1) expression, and knockdown of ccnd1 abrogated the BMP2-mediated inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation. Mechanistically, we found that Smad1/4, effectors of BMP2 signaling, competed with YAP for the interaction with TAED1 and inhibited YAP's cotranscriptional activity. Our data reveal mechanistic cross talk between BMP2 signaling and the Hippo-YAP pathway in murine NSC proliferation, which may be exploited as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.

submitted time 2016-06-06 Hits4359Downloads1945 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01739 [pdf]

Insulin-InsR signaling drives multipotent progenitor differentiation toward lymphoid lineages

Xia, Pengyan; Wang, Shuo; Du, Ying; Huang, Guanling; Fan, Zusen; Huang, Guanling; Satoh, Takashi; Akira, Shizuo
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Immunology

The lineage commitment of HSCs generates balanced myeloid and lymphoid populations in hematopoiesis. However, the underlying mechanisms that control this process remain largely unknown. Here, we show that insulin-insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is required for lineage commitment of multipotent progenitors (MPPs). Deletion of Insr in murine bone marrow causes skewed differentiation of MPPs to myeloid cells. mTOR acts as a downstream effector that modulates MPP differentiation. mTOR activates Stat3 by phosphorylation at serine 727 under insulin stimulation, which binds to the promoter of Ikaros, leading to its transcription priming. Our findings reveal that the insulin-InsR signaling drives MPP differentiation into lymphoid lineages in early lymphopoiesis, which is essential for maintaining a balanced immune system for an individual organism.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits3319Downloads1773 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01738 [pdf]

Crystal structure of cyclic nucleotide-binding-like protein from Brucella abortus

He, Zheng; Gao, Yuan; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Xuejun C.; He, Zheng; Dong, Jing; Ke, Yuehua; Chen, Zeliang
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

The cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB)-like protein (CNB-L) from Brucella abortus shares sequence homology with CNB domain-containing proteins. We determined the crystal structure of CNB-L at 2.0 angstrom resolution in the absence of its C-terminal helix and nucleotide. The 3D structure of CNB-L is in a twofold symmetric form. Each protomer shows high structure similarity to that of cGMP-binding domain-containing proteins, and likely mimics their nucleotide-free conformation. A key residue, Glu17, mediates the dimerization and prevents binding of cNMP to the canonical ligand-pocket. The structurally observed dimer of CNB-L is stable in solution, and thus is likely to be biologically relevant. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits11012Downloads1978 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.01577 [pdf]


Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei; Zhu, Bei; Liu, Yi A.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with D-st minima of -223 and -195 nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. A particular effort is to reconstruct the in situ structure using a Grad-Shafranov technique and compare the reconstruction results with solar observations, which gives a larger spatial perspective of the source conditions than one-dimensional in situ measurements. Key results are obtained concerning how the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of CMEs control the geomagnetic storm intensity and variability: (1) a sheath-ejecta-ejecta mechanism and a sheath-sheath-ejecta scenario are proposed for the multi-step development of the 2015 March 17 and June 22 geomagnetic storms, respectively;(2) two contrasting cases of how the CME flux-rope characteristics generate intense geomagnetic storms are found, which indicates that a southward flux-rope orientation is not a necessity for a strong geomagnetic storm;and (3) the unexpected 2015 March 17 intense geomagnetic storm resulted from the interaction between two successive CMEs plus the compression by a high-speed stream from behind, which is essentially the "perfect storm" scenario proposed by Liu et al. (i.e., a combination of circumstances results in an event of unusual magnitude), so the "perfect storm" scenario may not be as rare as the phrase implies.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2320Downloads1313 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.01571 [pdf]


Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Dai, Xinghua; Yang, Zhongwei; Huang, Chong; Hu, Huidong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

We study the role of the coronal magnetic field configuration of an active region (AR) in determining the propagation direction of a coronal mass ejection (CME). The CME occurred in the AR 11944 (S09W01) near the disk center on 2014 January 7 and was associated with an X1.2 flare. A new CME reconstruction procedure based on a polarimetric technique is adopted, which shows that the CME changed its propagation direction by around 28 degrees in latitude within 2.5 R-circle dot and 43 degrees in longitude within 6.5 R-circle dot with respect to the CME source region. This significant non-radial motion is consistent with the finding of Mostl et al. We use nonlinear force-free field and potential field source surface extrapolation methods to determine the configurations of the coronal magnetic field. We also calculate the magnetic energy density distributions at different heights based on the extrapolations. Our results show that the AR coronal magnetic field has a strong influence on the CME propagation direction. This is consistent with the "channeling" by the AR coronal magnetic field itself, rather than deflection by nearby structures. These results indicate that the AR coronal magnetic field configuration has to be taken into account in order to determine CME propagation direction correctly.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2026Downloads1194 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.01553 [pdf]

Three-dimensional single-pixel compressive reflectivity imaging based on complementary modulation

Yu, Wen-Kai; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Li, Long-Zhen; Zhai, Guang-Jie
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

A three-dimensional (3D) imager with a single-pixel detector and complementary intensity modulation of a digital micromirror device (DMD) array, which does not rely on scene raster scanning as in light detection and ranging (LIDAR) or on a two-dimensional array of sensors as used in time-of-flight (TOF) cameras, can not only capture full-color, high-quality images of real-life objects, but also recover the depth information and 3D reflectivity of the scene, reducing the required measurement dimension as well as the complexity, and cutting the cost of the detector array down to a single unit. The imager achieves spatial resolution using compressed sensing to exploit the sparsity of the signal. The disparity maps of the scene are reconstructed using sum of absolute or squared differences to reveal the depth information. This nonscanning, low-complexity 3D reflectivity imaging prototype may be of considerable value to various computer vision applications. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1239Downloads700 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201605.01531 [pdf]

Defining the Role of Tyrosine and Rational Tuning of Oxidase Activity by Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Tyrosine Analogs

Lv, Xiaoxuan; Li, Jiasong; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jiangyun; Lv, Xiaoxuan; Li, Jiasong; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jiangyun; Yu, Yang; Lu, Yi; Cui, Chang; Mukherjee, Arnab; Lu, Yi; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi; Nilges, Mark J.
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

While a conserved tyrosine (Tyr) is found in oxidases, the roles of phenol ring pK(a) and reduction potential in O-2 reduction have not been defined despite many years of research on numerous oxidases and their models. These issues represent major challenges in our understanding of O-2 reduction mechanism in bioenergetics. Through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acid analogs of Tyr, with progressively decreasing pKa of the phenol ring and increasing reduction potential, in the active site of a functional model of oxidase in myoglobin, a linear dependence of both the O-2 reduction activity and the fraction of H2O formation with the pKa of the phenol ring has been established. By using these unnatural amino acids as spectroscopic probe, we have provided conclusive evidence for the location of a Tyr radical generated during reaction with H2O2, by the distinctive hyperfine splitting patterns of the halogenated tyrosines and one of its deuterated derivatives incorporated at the 33 position of the protein. These results demonstrate for the first time that enhancing the proton donation ability of the Tyr enhances the oxidase activity, allowing the Tyr analogs to augment enzymatic activity beyond that of natural Tyr.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2618Downloads1513 Comment 0

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