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1. chinaXiv:202204.00119 [pdf]

Xitunaspis, a new eugaleaspid fish (Eugaleaspiformes, Galeaspida) from the Lower Devonian of Qujing, Yunnan

SUN Hao-Ran; GAI Zhi-Kun; CAI Jia-Chen; LI Qiang; ZHU Min; ZHAO Wen-Jin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

A new genus and species of the family Eugaleaspidae (Eugaleaspiformes, Galeaspida), Xitunaspis magnus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Lower Devonian Xitun Formation in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The new genus displays the diagnostic characters of the Eugaleaspidae, including a slit-like median dorsal opening, no inner cornual process, developed median dorsal canals, and only three pairs of lateral transverse canals extending from lateral dorsal canals. Different from the other eugaleaspids, X. magnus possesses a large headshield with thick dermal bone and a more plesiomorphic sensory canal system. The phylogenetic analysis of the Galeaspida reveals that Xitunaspis clusters with Dunyu and Eugaleaspis to form a monophyletic clade Eugaleaspidae Liu, 1965, and has a closer relationship with Dunyu than Eugaleaspis by sharing the thick dermal bone of the headshield. The new finding represents the first convincing fossil record of the Eugaleaspiformes in the middle Lochkovian Xitun Formation and adds to our knowledge about the morphology of eugaleaspiforms and the evolutionary pattern of the sensory canal system in the Eugaleaspiformes and even Galeaspida.

submitted time 2022-04-16 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2595Downloads337 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202204.00120 [pdf]

New fossils of small and medium-sized bovids from the Early Pleistocene Site of Shanshenmiaozui in Nihewan Basin, North China

TONG Hao-Wen; ZHANG Bei; CHEN Xi; WANG Xiao-Min
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Shanshenmiaozui site in Nihewan Basin in North China is a recently discovered Early Pleistocene site which yields rich and diverse mammalian fossils. In the fauna, the small and medium-sized bovid fossils are well represented and can be referred to the following taxa: Spirocerus wongi, Gazella sinensis, Ovis shantungensis and Megalovis piveteaui respectively, among which G. sinensis is the dominate species. S. wongi and G. sinensis are mainly represented by horn-cores and partial skull bones as well as mandibles; in addition, metacarpal and/or metatarsal bones were also recognized for all of the four species. The horn-cores are easy to be identified to the species level, while the dentitions and the postcranial bones underwent a series of examinations and comparisons before getting properly determined and referred to the most approximate taxa. Among the postcranial bones, the metapodials, especially to the metacarpal bones special attentions were paid, which are crucial not only for taxonomic identification, but also for phylogenetic and paleoecological reconstructions; the previously misidentified metapodial specimens in Nihewan fauna were reconsidered in this paper. In the SSMZ fauna, the bovid guild is dominated by Gazella and Bison, which indicates steppe was the most important biome in Nihewan Basin during Early Pleistocene.

submitted time 2022-04-16 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2200Downloads309 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202204.00121 [pdf]

Attributing “Gomphotherium shensiense” to Platybelodon tongxinensis, and a new species of Platybelodon from the latest Middle Miocene

WANG Shi-Qi; LI Chun-Xiao
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Platybelodon is the predominant proboscidean of northern China’s Middle Miocene. However, the cranial and cheek tooth morphologies are not clearly diagnosed. In particular, the differential diagnoses between Platybelodon and Gomphotherium have not been comprehensively examined. Here we restudied the cranium previously identified as Gomphotherium shensiense. The upper tusks lack an enamel band, the rostrum is long and narrow, the facial part is rostrally positioned, and a large “prenasal slope” is present. These characters are distinct from those of any species of Gomphotherium, but fit well with some primitive species of Platybelodon, i.e., P. tongxinensis and P. danovi. The molars are also close to the type specimen of P. tongxinensis in the tetralophodont M3 with mesiodistally wide interlophs, curved outline, and a tendency of cementodonty. In this article, we synonymized Gomphotherium shensiense with P. tongxinensis. Moreover, we recognized a new species, Platybelodon tetralophus, from the P. grangeri material collected by the AMHN expedition in Tunggur region. Platybelodon tetralophus differs from P. grangeri and the other species in the tetralophodont M2 and m2, representing the most derived species within Platybelodon. It has only occurred in the uppermost horizon of the Tunggur Formation, i.e., the Tamuqin Fauna (Platybelodon Quarry and Wolf Camp Quarry of AMHN). This work is a comprehensive amending of the genus Platybelodon.

submitted time 2022-04-16 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2414Downloads273 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202203.00076 [pdf]

Adjustment of precipitation measurements using Total Rain weighing Sensor (TRwS) gauges in the cryospheric hydrometeorology observation (CHOICE) system of the Qilian Mountains, Northwest China

ZHAO Yanni; CHEN Rensheng; HAN Chuntan; WANG Lei
Subjects: Geosciences >> Hydrology

Abstract: Precipitation is one of the most important indicators of climate data, but there are many errors in precipitation measurements due to the influence of climatic conditions, especially those of solid precipitation in alpine mountains and at high latitude areas. The measured amount of precipitation in those areas is frequently less than the actual amount of precipitation. To understand the impact of climatic conditions on precipitation measurements in the mountainous areas of Northwest China and the applicability of different gauges in alpine mountains, we established a cryospheric hydrometeorology observation (CHOICE) system in 2008 in the Qilian Mountains, which consists of six automated observation stations located between 2960 and 4800 m a.s.l. Total Rain weighing Sensor (TRwS) gauges tested in the World Meteorological Organization-Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE) were used at observation stations with the CHOICE system. To study the influence of climatic conditions on different types of precipitation measured by the TRwS gauges, we conducted an intercomparison experiment of precipitation at Hulu-1 station that was one of the stations in the CHOICE system. Moreover, we tested the application of transfer functions recommended by the WMO-SPICE at this station using the measurement data from a TRwS gauge from August 2016 to December 2020 and computed new coefficients for the same transfer functions that were more appropriate for the dataset from Hulu-1 station. The new coefficients were used to correct the precipitation measurements of other stations in the CHOICE system. Results showed that the new parameters fitted to the local dataset had better correction results than the original parameters. The environmental conditions of Hulu-1 station were very different from those of observation stations that provided datasets to create the transfer functions. Thus, root-mean-square error (RMSE) of solid and mixed precipitation corrected by the original parameters increased significantly by the averages of 0.135 (353%) and 0.072 mm (111%), respectively. RMSE values of liquid, solid and mixed precipitation measurements corrected by the new parameters decreased by 6%, 20% and 13%, respectively. In addition, the new parameters were suitable for correcting precipitation at other five stations in the CHOICE system. The relative precipitation (RP) increment of different types of precipitation increased with rising altitude. The average RP increment value of snowfall at six stations was the highest, reaching 7%, while that of rainfall was the lowest, covering 3%. Our results confirmed that the new parameters could be used to correct precipitation measurements of the CHOICE system.

submitted time 2022-03-24 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1864Downloads271 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202203.00065 [pdf]

身体姿势表情测试集在中国成人和儿童中的评定

Yang, Yunmei ; HOU, Wenwen ; Li, Jing
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

目的:身体姿势表情刺激集为情绪研究提供了一套标准化的刺激材料,该刺激集在西方成人的一致性已经得到了验证,但是该刺激集在中国人群中的一致性尚不清楚。因此本研究从原始的254张图片中选取了快乐、悲伤、恐惧和愤怒各42张图片来验证该刺激集在中国人群中的适用性。
方法:31名中国大学生和41名中国学龄前儿童参加了这项研究。所有被试都被要求完成情绪识别和判断任务。
结果:结果表明,成人的评定一致性较高,而儿童的一致性处于中等水平。对于成人来说,悲伤最容易识别,其次是恐惧,愤怒和幸福最难识别。对于儿童来说,恐惧最容易识别,愤怒和悲伤次之,快乐最难识别。与此同时,成人对快乐和悲伤的准确率高于儿童。对于成人来说,他们更容易将积极的情绪与消极情绪混淆。他们倾向于将悲伤、恐惧和愤怒误认为是快乐。对于儿童来说,他们更容易将悲伤识别为恐惧和快乐。他们也容易将愤怒识别为恐惧。
局限:恐惧和愤怒情绪图片适用于5岁的儿童,而悲伤和快乐情绪,尤其是快乐情绪图片的适用性并不理想。在未来可以通过结合中国人的实际生活重新拍摄传达快乐和悲伤情绪的身体姿势图片,并且可以选择年龄更小的孩子探查改良后的图片适用性。
结论:这些结果表明,中国和西方成人对身体姿势表情刺激集的识别模式大致相同。但是,在相同的文化背景下,成人和儿童的识别模式差异很大,并且成人的识别准确率高于儿童。

submitted time 2022-03-19 Hits3068Downloads407 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202203.00041 [pdf]

Modeling and analyzing supply-demand relationships of water resources in Xinjiang from a perspective of ecosystem services

LI Feng; LI Yaoming; ZHOU Xuewen; YIN Zun; LIU Tie; XIN Qinchuan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Hydrology

Water shortage is one bottleneck that limits economic and social developments in arid and semi-arid areas. As the impacts of climate change and human disturbance intensify across time, uncertainties in both water resource supplies and demands increase in arid and semi-arid areas. Taking a typical arid region in China, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, as an example, water yield depth (WYD) and water utilization depth (WUD) from 2002 to 2018 were simulated using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model and socioeconomic data. The supply-demand relationships of water resources were analyzed using the ecosystem service indices including water supply-demand difference (WSDD) and water supply rate (WSR). The internal factors in changes of WYD and WUD were explored using the controlled variable method. The results show that the supply- demand relationships of water resources in Xinjiang were in a slight deficit, but the deficit was alleviated due to increased precipitation and decreased WUD of irrigation. WYD generally experienced an increasing trend, and significant increase mainly occurred in the oasis areas surrounding both the Junggar Basin and Tarim Basin. WUD had a downward trend with a decline of 20.70%, especially in oasis areas. Water resources in most areas of Xinjiang were fully utilized and the utilization efficiency of water resources increased. The water yield module in the InVEST model was calibrated and validated using gauging station data in Xinjiang, and the result shows that the use of satellite-based water storage data helped to decrease the bias error of the InVEST model by 0.69×108 m3. This study analyzed water resource supplies and demands from a perspective of ecosystem services, which expanded the scope of the application of ecosystem services and increased the research perspective of water resource evaluation. The results could provide guidance for water resource management such as spatial allocation and structural optimization of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas.

submitted time 2022-03-15 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1585Downloads300 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202202.00002 [pdf]

Optimal bandwidth selection for retrieving Cu content in rock based on hyperspectral remote sensing

MA Xiumei; ZHOU Kefa; WANG Jinlin; CUI Shichao; ZHOU Shuguang; WANG Shanshan; ZHANG Guanbin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Hyperspectral remote sensing technology is widely used to detect element contents because of its multiple bands, high resolution, and abundant information. Although researchers have paid considerable attention to selecting the optimal bandwidth for the hyperspectral inversion of metal element contents in rocks, the influence of bandwidth on the inversion accuracy are ignored. In this study, we collected 258 rock samples in and near the Kalatage polymetallic ore concentration area in the southwestern part of Hami City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China and measured the ground spectra of these samples. The original spectra were resampled with different bandwidths. A Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) model was used to invert Cu contents of rock samples and then the influence of different bandwidths on Cu content inversion accuracy was explored. According to the results, the PLSR model obtains the highest Cu content inversion accuracy at a bandwidth of 35 nm, with the model determination coefficient (R2) of 0.5907. The PLSR inversion accuracy is relatively unaffected by the bandwidth within 580 nm, but the accuracy decreases significantly at 85 nm bandwidth (R2=0.5473), and the accuracy gradually decreased at bandwidths beyond 85 nm. Hence, bandwidth has a certain impact on the inversion accuracy of Cu content in rocks using the PLSR model. This study provides an indicator argument and theoretical basis for the future design of hyperspectral sensors for rock geochemistry.

submitted time 2022-01-30 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2897Downloads253 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202202.00006 [pdf]

Ecological environment quality evaluation of the Sahel region in Africa based on remote sensing ecological index

WU Shupu; GAO Xin; LEI Jiaqiang; ZHOU Na; GUO Zengkun; SHANG Baijun
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Long-term monitoring of the ecological environment changes is helpful for the protection of the ecological environment. Based on the ecological environment of the Sahel region in Africa, we established a remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) model for this region by combining dryness, moisture, greenness, and desertification indicators. Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform, this study analyzed the ecological environment quality of the Sahel region during the period of 2001–2020. We used liner regression and fluctuation analysis methods to study the trend and fluctuation of RSEI, and utilized the stepwise regression approach to analyze the contribution of each indicator to the RSEI. Further, the correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between RSEI and precipitation, and Hurst index was applied to evaluate the change trend of RSEI in the future. The results show that RSEI of the Sahel region exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Specifically, it exhibited a decrease in gradient from south to north of the Sahel region. Moreover, RSEI in parts of the Sahel region presented non-zonal features. Different land-cover types demonstrated different RSEI values and changing trends. We found that RSEI and precipitation were positively correlated, suggesting that precipitation is the controlling factor of RSEI. The areas where RSEI values presented an increasing trend were slightly less than the areas where RSEI values presented a decreasing trend. In the Sahel region, the areas with the ecological environment characterized by continuous deterioration and continuous improvement accounted for 44.02% and 28.29% of the total study area, respectively, and the areas in which the ecological environment was changing from improvement to deterioration and from deterioration to improvement accounted for 12.42% and 15.26% of the whole area, respectively. In the face of the current ecological environment and future change trends of RSEI in the Sahel region, the research results provide a reference for the construction of the ''Green Great Wall'' (GGW) ecological environment project in Africa.

submitted time 2022-01-30 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2879Downloads656 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202201.00059 [pdf]

Reappraisal of the largest ctenochasmatid Moganopterus zhuiana L?et al., 2012

GAO Dian-Song; JIANG Shun-Xing; XU Li1 CHENG Xin; YANG Li-Li; JIA Song-Hai; WANG Xiao-Lin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Moganopterus zhuiana L?et al. 2012 was erected as a member of the Boreopteridae, which was questioned by different researchers shortly after the publication. Although the new assignment to the Ctenochasmatidae is widely accepted by pterosaur researchers, some characteristics still require a detailed description. Here, the holotype of this taxon is restudied, and some ambiguous characteristics are re-identified. The diagnosis of this taxon has been revised as the following: a large ctenochasmatid pterosaur, which can be distinguished from other members of this clade by a single autapomorphy: an elongated rod-like parietal crest that extends posterodorsally, forming an angle of about 15?with the ventral margin of the skull. This taxon can be further distinguished from other ctenochasmatids on the basis of the following combination of characteristics: straight occlusal surfaces of the upper and low jaws; presence of a low premaxillary crest confined anterior to the nasoantorbital fenestra; rostrum about two thirds of the skull length; nasoantorbital fenestra occupying slightly more than 20% of the skull length; about 100 slender teeth; and a mid-cervical length/width ratio of about 7. The wingspan of M. zhuiana has been re-estimated according to a simple regression equation for wingspan versus skull length in ctenochasmatids. It confirms that M. zhuiana, although smaller than previous thought, is still the largest known ctenochasmatid. When comparing the sizes of ctenochasmatids in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, ctenochasmatids showed a rough tendency to increase their sizes.

submitted time 2022-01-19 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3229Downloads455 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202201.00028 [pdf]

Precise calibration of cavity forward and reflected signals using low-level radio-frequency system

Ma, Jin-Ying ; Qiu, Feng ; Shi, Long-Bo ; Zhu, Zheng-Long ; Jiang, Tian-Cai ; Xue, Zong-Heng ; Jin, Ke-An ; Chen, Qi ; Xu, Cheng-Ye ; Ding, Xing-Hao ; Gao, Zheng ; Sun, Lie-Peng ; Huang, Gui-Rong ; He, Yuan
Subjects: Nuclear Science and Technology >> Particle Accelerator

Precise measurements of the cavity forward (Vf) and reflected signals (Vr) are essential for characterizing other key parameters such as the cavity detuning and forward power. In practice, it is challenging to measure Vf and Vr precisely because of crosstalk between the forward and reflected channels (e.g., coupling between the cavity reflected and forward signals in a directional coupler with limited directivity). For DESY, a method based on the cavity differential equation was proposed to precisely calibrate the actual Vf and Vr. In this study, we verified the validity and practicability of this approach for the Chinese ADS front-end demo superconducting linac (CAFe) facility at the Institute of Modern Physics and a compact energy recovery linac (cERL) test ma#2;chine at KEK. At the CAFe facility, we successfully calibrated the actual Vf signal using this method. The result demonstrated that the directivity of directional couplers might seriously affect the accuracy of Vf measurement. At the cERL facility, we calibrated the Lorentz force detuning (LFD) using the actual Vf. Our study confirmed that the precise calibration of Vf significantly improves the accuracy of the cavity LFD measurement.

submitted time 2021-12-31 Cooperative journals:《Nuclear Science and Techniques》 Hits980Downloads264 Comment 0

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