|We observed a counter-intuitive remarkable heating phenomenon generated by helium-4 superflows. This phenomenon establishes that superflows carry thermal energies and entropies, which is in contrast to the hypothesis of the two-fluid model. Quantum many-body theory of superfluids provides a natural understanding of the phenomenon.|
|In this note, we point out that a case of mechano-caloric effect of superfluid $^4$He actually establishes a temporary entropy-decreasing process, which was unnoticed in the past. We show that this process can be used to convert thermal energy from the environment to useful energy in principle, and therefore, the second law of thermodynamics is not an universal law.|
|We argue microscopically that helium-4 superflows carry heat unavoidably. We then show that a heterogeneous helium-4 superflow loop can be used to realize an entropy-decreasing process, thus providing an exception to the second law of thermodynamics. This exception is a quantum effect for its essential dependence on the quantum phenomenon of superfluidity.|
|We review on a recently proposed quantum exception to the second law of thermodynamics. We emphase that helium-4 superflows, like any other forms of flows, shall carry entropy or heat in a thermal environment. Following that, one can use a heterogeneous helium-4 superflow loop to realize entropy-decreasing processes. We also mention that the heat content of a superflow has an unusual dependence on flow velocity, which is an important factor contributing to the entropy-decreasing processes.|
Molecular changes elicited by plants in response to fungal attack and how this affects plant–pathogen interaction, including susceptibility or resistance, remain elusive. We studied the dynamics in root metabolism during compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Foc), using quantitative label-free proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics. Results demonstrated differential expression of proteins and metabolites upon Foc inoculations in the resistant plants compared with the susceptible ones. Additionally, expression analysis of candidate genes supported the proteomic and metabolic variations in the chickpea roots upon Foc inoculation. In particular, we found that the resistant plants revealed significant increase in the carbon and nitrogen metabolism; generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lignification and phytoalexins. The levels of some of the pathogenesis-related proteins were significantly higher upon Foc inoculation in the resistant plant. Interestingly, results also exhibited the crucial role of altered Yang cycle, which contributed in different methylation reactions and unfolded protein response in the chickpea roots against Foc. Overall, the observed modulations in the metabolic flux as outcome of several orchestrated molecular events are determinant of plant's role in chickpea–Foc interactions.