摘要：Here we discribe a new ootypes of prismatoolithids found from the Late Cretaceous Jiangjunding Formation in the Laiyang Basin, Shandong Province. On the basis of characters such as elongate ovoids, smooth eggshell surface, relatively thinner eggshell thickness, prismatic eggshell units, slender pores in radial section of eggshell and little pores with round or irregular shapes in tangeital section of eggshell, we erect one new oogenus and one new oospecies: Laiyangoolithus lixiangensis oogen. et oosp. nov. The discovery of L. lixiangensis not only enriches the diversity and composition of the Laiyang Dinosaur Egg Fauna, but the paleogeographic distribution of primatoolithids as well. In addition, it provides more paleontological materials for the study of the diversity and paleogeographic distribution of troodontids in China.
摘要：An adult skull with articulated atlas and an adult mandible, collected by Emile Licent in 1920 from the Late Miocene of Qingyang (Gansu, China), is recognized as a new species Chilotherium licenti sp. nov. These specimens possess typical characters of the genus Chilotherium, such as the strongly expanded mandibular symphysis, the huge and dagger-shaped i2s with an upturned medial flange, strongly constricted protocones, well-developed crochet and crista, and weakly developed parastyle folds and paracone ribs. Chilotherium licenti is characterized by the near absence of lingual and buccal cingula, and the medifossette on P2 to M2 forming by well-developed crochet and crista. The derived characters of the new species indicate that it is the highly specialized taxon of the genus Chilotherium, corresponding to MN12-13 of the Turolian in Europe. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of rhinocerotids, C. licenti from the Late Miocene is the most derived species in the known species of the Chilotherium lineage.
摘要：Mammut is the terminal taxon of the proboscidean group Mammutidae, which survived to the Late Pleistocene. Although this genus was widely distributed in the Pliocene of Eurasia and the Pleistocene of North America, little is known about its early evolution. Here, we report on Mammut cf. M. obliquelophus from the Upper Miocene of northern China based on new fossil material, including an almost complete juvenile cranium and other remains, which show many primitive features within Mammutidae and clearly demonstrate the morphological evolution of Mammut. The strongly laterally expanded lateral wing of the occiput and the presence of basal constriction of the incisive fossa display cranial similarity between Mammut cf. M. obliquelophus and both Eozygodon morotoensis and Choerolophodon guangheensis, early representatives of the Mammutidae and Choerolophodontidae, respectively, indicating the close relationship between these two groups: both of them are located at the basal phylogenetic positions in Elephantimorpha. This result is further confirmed by a cladistic analysis.
摘要：嵌齿象是真象的基干类群，其研究历来受到重视，同时也存在很多争议。维曼嵌齿象(Gomphotherium wimani)是中国的一个特有种，之前仅有一些牙齿和破碎下颌的报道，研究者对其形态特征和演化地位的认识一直比较模糊。本文报道了发现于甘肃省临夏盆地的维曼嵌齿象的新材料，包括上沟地点一件未成年头骨和倒黑沟地点属于同一个体的部分颊齿。通过研究对比，认为维曼嵌齿象是嵌齿象中一个比较进步的种，具有如下独有特征：颊齿的主齿柱前后中心小尖分裂并成嵴状，副齿柱趋向于分裂，发育有弱的副齿柱中心小尖，齿谷中等开阔，齿冠相对较高。对过去发现的维曼嵌齿象材料的厘定表明，该种最初建立时产于泉头沟地点的一颗m3实际上是葛氏铲齿象(Platybelodon grangeri)的M3; 而西宁吊沟地点发现的维曼嵌齿象的一件M3极有可能属于铲齿象类(amebelodontids)。对厘定后的维曼嵌齿象地点的研究表明，维曼嵌齿象分布于中国甘肃、青海的几个中中新统地点，其时代基本上可以与MN6−MN7/8早期相对比，时代跨度估计为15~13 Ma。
摘要：Mammut is the terminal taxon of the proboscidean group Mammutidae, which survived to the Late Pleistocene. Although this genus was widely distributed in the Pliocene of Eurasia and the Pleistocene of North America, little is known about its early evolution. Here, we report on Mammut cf. M. obliquelophus from the Upper Miocene of northern China based on new fossil material, including an almost complete juvenile cranium and other remains, which show many primitive features within Mammutidae and clearly demonstrate the morphological evolution of Mammut. The strongly laterally expanded lateral wing of the occiput and the presence of basal constriction of the incisive fossa display cranial similarity between Mammut cf. M. obliquelophus and both Eozygodon morotoensis and Choerolophodon guangheensis, early representatives of the Mammutidae and Choerolophodontidae, respectively, indicating the close relationship between these two groups: both of them are located at the basal phylogenetic positions in Elephantimorpha.This result is further confrmed by a cladistic analysis.
摘要：We present an analytical result for the supercurrent across a superconductor/quantum-dot/superconductor junction. By converting the current integration into a special contour integral, we can express the current as a sum of the residues of poles. These poles are real and give a natural definition of the Andreev bound states. We also use the exact result to explain some features of the supercurrent transport behavior.
摘要：Thermal aging effects on surface of 2.5 MeV Fe ion irradiated Fe-0.6%Cu alloy were investigated using positron annihilation techniques. The samples were irradiated at 573 K to a dose of 0.1 dpa. Their thermal aging was performed at 573 K for 5, 50, and 100 h. From the results of Doppler broadening measurement, an obvious trough could be seen in near surface region from the S parameters and inflection point form at S-W curves. This indicates changes in the annihilation mechanism of positrons in surface region after thermal aging. Coincident Doppler broadening indicates that the density of Cu precipitates in the thermal aged samples decreased, due to recovery of the vacancies. Keywords Fe-Cu alloy; Positron annihilation; Irradiation; Thermal aging
摘要：Room-temperature ferromagnetism has been experimentally observed in annealed rutile TiO2 single crystals when magnetic field is applied parallel to the sample plane. By combining X-ray absorption near edge structure spectrum and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, Ti3+-VO defect complexes (or clusters) have been identified in annealed crystals at high vacuum. We elucidate that the unpaired 3d electrons in Ti3+ ions provide the observed room-temperature ferromagnetism. Besides, excess oxygen ions in TiO2 lattice could induce a number of Ti vacancies which increase magnetic moments obviously.
摘要：Both active and sterile sub-eV neutrinos can form the cosmic neutrino background in the early Universe. We consider the beta-decaying (e.g., 3H) and EC-decaying (e.g., 163Ho) nuclei as the promising targets to capture relic neutrinos in the laboratory. We calculate the capture rates of relic electron neutrinos and antineutrinos against the corresponding beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay backgrounds in the (3+Ns) flavor mixing scheme, and discuss the future prospect in terms of the PTOLEMY project. We stress that such direct measurements of hot DM might not be hopeless in the long term.
摘要：RNA virus infection is recognized by the RIG-I family of receptors that activate the mitochondrial adaptor MAVS, leading to the clearance of viruses. Antiviral signalling activation requires strict modulation to avoid damage to the host from exacerbated inflammation. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (IRTKS) participates in actin bundling and insulin signalling and its deficiency causes insulin resistance. However, whether IRTKS is involved in the regulation of innate immunity remains elusive. Here we show that IRTKS deficiency causes enhanced innate immune responses against RNA viruses. IRTKS-mediated suppression of antiviral responses depends on the RIG-I-MAVS signalling pathway. IRTKS recruits the E2 ligase Ubc9 to sumoylate PCBP2 in the nucleus, which causes its cytoplasmic translocation during viral infection. The sumoylated PCBP2 associates with MAVS to initiate its degradation, leading to downregulation of antiviral responses. Thus, IRTKS functions as a negative modulator of excessive inflammation.
摘要：A comprehensive approach that can identify and quantify selenium (Se) in seleno-proteins in Se-enriched yeast was developed. The Se-containing compounds in Se-enriched yeast were first extracted and then the fraction of Se-containing proteins in the supernatant was analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). The detection limit (DL) of SR-XRF analysis for Se quantification in Se-containing proteins after 2-DE separation was calculated to be 0.20 mu g g(-1), which is suitable for Se quantification in the Se-containing spots present on the 2-D gel. After being scanned by SR-XRF, only spots with a mean Se content exceeding twice the DL of SR-XRF were considered to be seleno-proteins. In this way, a total of 157 Se-containing spots in the gel were visually distinguished. Se contents in all the Se-containing proteins of different molecular weights were quantified. The total Se content on the 2-D gel was calculated to be 126.56 mu g g(-1), which covered most of the seleno-proteins on the 2-D gel.