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1. chinaXiv:202109.00019 [pdf]

Reducing water and nitrogen inputs combined with plastic mulched ridge-furrow irrigation improves soil water and salt status in arid saline areas, China

LI Cheng; WANG Qingsong; LUO Shuai; QUAN Hao; WANG Naijiang; LUO Xiaoqi; ZHANG Tibin; DING Dianyuan; DONG Qin'ge; FENG Hao
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Plastic mulched ridge-furrow irrigation is a useful method to improve crop productivity and decrease salt accumulation in arid saline areas. However, inappropriate irrigation and fertilizer practices may result in ecological and environmental problems. In order to improve the resource use efficiency in these areas, we investigated the effects of different irrigation amounts (400 (I1), 300 (I2) and 200 (I3) mm) and nitrogen application rates (300 (F1) and 150 (F2) kg N/hm2) on water consumption, salt variation and resource use efficiency of spring maize (Zea mays L.) in the Hetao Irrigation District (HID) of Northwest China in 2017 and 2018. Result showed that soil water contents were 0.2%–8.9% and 13.9%–18.1% lower for I2 and I3 than for I1, respectively, but that was slightly higher for F2 than for F1. Soil salt contents were 7.8%–23.5% and 48.5%–48.9% lower for I2 than for I1 and I3, but that was 1.6%–5.5% higher for F1 than for F2. Less salt leaching at the early growth stage (from sowing to six-leaf stage) and higher salt accumulation at the peak growth stage (from six-leaf to tasseling stage and from grain-filling to maturity stage) resulted in a higher soil salt content for I3 than for I1 and I2. Grain yields for I1 and I2 were significantly higher than that for I3 and irrigation water use efficiency for I2 was 14.7%–34.0% higher than that for I1. Compared with F1, F2 increased the partial factor productivity (PFP) of nitrogen fertilizer by more than 80%. PFP was not significantly different between I1F2 and I2F2, but significantly higher than those of other treatments. Considering the goal of saving water and nitrogen resources, and ensuring food security, we recommended the combination of I2F2 to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture in the HID and other similar arid saline areas.

submitted time 2021-09-08 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1948Downloads186 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01311 [pdf]

Recombinant Murine Gamma Herpesvirus 68 Carrying KSHV G Protein-Coupled Receptor Induces Angiogenic Lesions in Mice

Zhang, Junjie; Zhu, Lining; Lu, Xiaolu; Wang, Yi; Gao, Shou-jiang; Feng, Pinghui; Feldman, Emily R.; Keyes, Lisa R.; Tibbetts, Scott A.; Fan, Hui; Feng, Hao; Xia, Zanxian; Xia, Zanxian; Sun, Jiya; Jiang, Taijiao; Sun, Jiya; Jiang, Taijiao; Sun, Jiya; Jiang, Taijiao; Jiang, Taijiao
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Human gamma herpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are capable of inducing tumors, particularly in in immune-compromised individuals. Due to the stringent host tropism, rodents are resistant to infection by human gamma herpesviruses, creating a significant barrier for the in vivo study of viral genes that contribute to tumorigenesis. The closely-related murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (gamma HV68) efficiently infects laboratory mouse strains and establishes robust persistent infection without causing apparent disease. Here, we report that a recombinant gamma HV68 carrying the KSHV G protein-coupled receptor (kGPCR) in place of its murine counterpart induces angiogenic tumors in infected mice. Although viral GPCRs are conserved in all gamma herpesviruses, kGPCR potently activated downstream signaling and induced tumor formation in nude mouse, whereas gamma HV68 GPCR failed to do so. Recombinant gamma HV68 carrying kGPCR demonstrated more robust lytic replication ex vivo than wild-type gamma HV68, although both viruses underwent similar acute and latent infection in vivo. Infection of immunosuppressed mice with gamma HV68 carrying kGPCR, but not wild-type gamma HV68, induced tumors in mice that exhibited angiogenic and inflammatory features shared with human Kaposi's sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry staining identified abundant latently-infected cells and a small number of cells supporting lytic replication in tumor tissue. Thus, mouse infection with a recombinant gamma HV68 carrying kGPCR provides a useful small animal model for tumorigenesis induced by a human gamma herpesvirus gene in the setting of a natural course of infection.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits1436Downloads855 Comment 0

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