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1. chinaXiv:202110.00020 [pdf]

Response of C:N:P in the plant-soil system and stoichiometric homeostasis of Nitraria tangutorum leaves in the oasis-desert ecotone, Northwest China

WEI Yajuan; DANG Xiaohong; WANG Ji; GAO Junliang; GAO Yan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Nitraria tangutorum nebkhas are widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid desert areas of China. The formation and development of N. tangutorum nebkhas are the result of the interaction between vegetation and the surrounding environment in the process of community succession. Different successional stages of N. tangutorum nebkhas result in differences in the community structure and composition, thereby strongly affecting the distribution of soil nutrients and ecosystem stability. However, the ecological stoichiometry of N. tangutorum nebkhas in different successional stages remains poorly understood. Understanding the stoichiometric homeostasis of N. tangutorum could provide insights into its adaptability to the arid and semi-arid desert environments. Therefore, we analyzed the stoichiometric characteristics of N. tangutorum in four successional stages, i.e., rudimental, developing, stabilizing, and degrading stages using a homeostasis model in an oasis-desert ecotone of Northwest China. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents and their ratios in the 0–100 cm soil depth were significantly lower than the averages at regional and global scales and were weakly influenced by successional stages in the oasis-desert ecotone. TN and TP contents and C:N:P in the soil showed similar trends. Total carbon (TC) and TN contents in leaves were 450.69–481.07 and 19.72–29.35 g/kg, respectively, indicating that leaves of N. tangutorum shrubs had a high storage capacity for C and N. Leaf TC and TN contents and N:P ratio increased from the rudimental stage to the stabilizing stage and then decreased in the degrading stage, while the reverse trend was found for leaf C:N. Leaf TP content decreased from the rudimental stage to the degrading stage and changed significantly in late successional stages. N:P ratio was above the theoretical limit of 14, indicating that the growth of N. tangutorum shrubs was limited by P during successional stages. Leaf N, P, and N:P homeostasis in four successional stages was identified as ''strictly homeostasis''. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil acidity (pH) and the maximum water holding capacity were the main factors affecting C:N:P stoichiometric characteristics in N. tangutorum leaves. Our study demonstrated that N. tangutorum with a high degree of stoichiometric homeostasis could better cope with the arid desert environment.

submitted time 2021-10-11 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5599Downloads253 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01380 [pdf]

Structural basis and functional analysis of the SARS coronavirus nsp14-nsp10 complex

Ma, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yan; Lou, Zhiyong; Yan, Liming; Rao, Zihe; Wu, Lijie; Zhang, Rongguang; Rao, Zihe; Shaw, Neil; Sun, Yuna; Zhang, Rongguang; Rao, Zihe; Wang, Jin; Rao, Zihe; Wang, Jin; Rao, Zihe; Wang, Jin; Rao, Zihe
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) of coronaviruses (CoV) is important for viral replication and transcription. The N-terminal exoribonuclease (ExoN) domain plays a proofreading role for prevention of lethal mutagenesis, and the C-terminal domain functions as a (guanine-N7) methyl transferase (N7-MTase) for mRNA capping. The molecular basis of both these functions is unknown. Here, we describe crystal structures of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV nsp14 in complex with its activator nonstructural protein10 (nsp10) and functional ligands. One molecule of nsp10 interacts with ExoN of nsp14 to stabilize it and stimulate its activity. Although the catalytic core of nsp14 ExoN is reminiscent of proofreading exonucleases, the presence of two zinc fingers sets it apart from homologs. Mutagenesis studies indicate that both these zinc fingers are essential for the function of nsp14. We show that a DEEDh (the five catalytic amino acids) motif drives nucleotide excision. The N7-MTase domain exhibits a noncanonical MTase fold with a rare beta-sheet insertion and a peripheral zinc finger. The cap-precursor guanosine-P3-adenosine-5', 5'-triphosphate and S-adenosyl methionine bind in proximity in a highly constricted pocket between two beta-sheets to accomplish methyl transfer. Our studies provide the first glimpses, to our knowledge, into the architecture of the nsp14-nsp10 complex involved in RNA viral proofreading.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1771Downloads997 Comment 0

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