• Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of In-Vessel Phenomena under Severe Accident Mitigation Strategy Based on ISAA-SAUP Program

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-11-29

    摘要: The phenomenology involved in severe accidents (SA) in nuclear reactors is highly complex. Currently, integrated analysis programs used for severe accident analysis heavily rely on custom empirical parameters, which introduce considerable uncertainty. Therefore, in recent years, the field of severe accidents has shifted its focus toward applying uncertainty analysis methods to quantify uncertainty in safety assessment programs, known as "best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU)." This approach aids in enhancing our comprehension of these programs and their further development and improvement. This study concentrates on a third-generation pressurized water reactor (Gen-III PWR) equipped with advanced active and passive mitigation strategies. Through an Integrated Severe Accident Analysis Program (ISAA), numerical modeling and uncertainty analysis were conducted on severe accidents resulting from large break loss of coolant accidents (LBLOCA). Seventeen uncertainty parameters of the ISAA program were meticulously screened. Using Wilks' formula, the developed uncertainty program code, SAUP, was employed to carry out Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), while ISAA was employed to execute batch calculations. Statistical analysis was then conducted on two figures of merit (FOMs), namely, hydrogen generation and the release of fission products (FP) within the pressure vessel. Uncertainty calculations revealed that hydrogen production and the fraction of fission product released exhibited a normal distribution, ranging from 182.784 kg to 329.581 kg and from 15.6% to 84.3%, respectively. The ratio of hydrogen production to reactor thermal power fell within the range of 0.0578 to 0.104. A sensitivity analysis was performed for uncertain input parameters, revealing significant correlations between the failure temperature of the cladding oxide layer, maximum melt flow rate, size of the particulate debris, and porosity of the debris with both hydrogen generation and the release of fission products.

  • Initial energy deposition and initiation mechanism of nanosecond laser damage caused by KDP surface micro-defects

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: To enable an exploration of the initiation mechanism of nanosecond laser damage on a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) surface, a defect-assisted energy deposition model is developed that involves light intensity enhancement and a sub-band gap energy level structure. The simulations provide an explanation on why the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the KDP crystal is two orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical value. The model is verified by use of the transient images that appear during the laser damage. In addition, the dimensions of the "dangerous" surface defects that are the most sensitive to the laser damage are proposed. This work enables clarification on the initial energy deposition (IED) and initiation mechanism of the nanosecond laser damage caused by the KDP surface defects on micro-nano scale. It is helpful in understanding the laser-matter interactions and to improve the processing technique for high quality optical components.

  • Non-existence of quantum black hole horizons in the improved dynamics approach

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In this paper, we study the quantum geometric effects near the locations that black hole horizons used to appear in Einstein's classical theory within the framework of the improved dynamic approach, in which the two polymerization parameters of the Kantowski-Sachs spacetime are functions of the phase space variables. Our detailed analysis shows that the effects are so strong that black hole horizons of the effective quantum theory do not exist any longer, and the corresponding Kantowski-Sachs model now describes the entire spacetime of the trapped region, instead of being only the internal region of a black hole, as it is usually expected in loop quantum gravity.

  • Micropascal-sensitivity ultrasound sensors based on optical microcavities

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities have been widely used for high-sensitivity ultrasound detection, due to their optical and mechanical resonances enhanced sensitivity. The ultrasound sensitivity of the cavity optomechanical system is fundamentally limited by the thermal noise. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the thermal-noise-limited sensitivity of a WGM microdisk ultrasound sensor, and optimize the sensitivity by varying the radius and thickness of the microdisk, as well as using a trench structure around the disk. Using a microdisk with a radius of 300 um and thickness of 2 um, a peak sensitivity of 1.18 uPa Hz^{-1/2} is achieved at 82.6 kHz, which is to our knowledge the record sensitivity among the cavity optomechanical ultrasound sensors. Such high sensitivity can improve the detection range of air-coupled ultrasound sensing technology.

  • High sensitivity air-coupled MHz frequency ultrasound detection using on-chip microcavities

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Owing to their dual-resonance enhanced sensitivity, cavity optomechanical systems provide an ideal platform for ultrasound sensing. In this work, we realize high sensitivity air-coupled ultrasound sensing from kilohertz (kHz) to megahertz (MHz) frequency range based on whispering gallery mode microcavities. Using a 57 um-diameter microtoroid with high optical Q factor (~10^7) and mechanical Q factor (~700), we achieve sensitivities of 46 uPa Hz^{-1/2}-10 mPa Hz^{-1/2} in a frequency range of 0.25-3.2 MHz. Thermal-noise-limited sensitivity is realized around the mechanical resonance at 2.56 MHz, in a frequency range of 0.6 MHz. We also observe the second- and third-order mechanical sidebands, and quantitatively study the intensities of each mechanical sideband as a function of the mechanical displacement. Measuring the combination of signal to noise ratios at all sidebands has the potential to extend the dynamic range of ultrasound sensing. In addition, to improve the ultrasound sensitivity in the kHz frequency range, we use a microdisk with a diameter of 200 um, and achieve sensitivities of 1.83 uPa Hz^{-1/2}-10.4 mPa Hz^{-1/2} in 30 kHz-1.65 MHz range.

  • Synthetic five-wave mixing in an integrated microcavity for visible-telecom entanglement generation

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Nonlinear optics processes lie at the heart of photonics and quantum optics for their indispensable role in light sources and information processing. During the past decades, the three- and four-wave mixing ($\chi^{(2)}$ and $\chi^{(3)}$) effects have been extensively studied, especially in the micro-/nano-structures by which the photon-photon interaction strength is greatly enhanced. So far, the high-order nonlinearity beyond the $\chi^{(3)}$ has rarely been studied in dielectric materials due to their weak intrinsic nonlinear susceptibility, even in high-quality microcavities. Here, an effective five-wave mixing process ($\chi^{(4)}$) is synthesized for the first time, by incorporating $\chi^{(2)}$ and $\chi^{(3)}$ processes in a single microcavity. The coherence of the synthetic $\chi^{(4)}$ is verified by generating time-energy entangled visible-telecom photon-pairs, which requires only one drive laser at the telecom waveband. The photon pair generation rate from the synthetic process shows an enhancement factor over $500$ times upon intrinsic five-wave mixing. Our work demonstrates a universal approach of nonlinear synthesis via photonic structure engineering at the mesoscopic scale rather than material engineering, and thus opens a new avenue for realizing high-order optical nonlinearities and exploring novel functional photonic devices.

  • Nonlinear optical radiation of a lithium niobate microcavity

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: The nonlinear optical radiation of an integrated lithium niobate microcavity is demonstrated, which has been neglected in previous studies of nonlinear photonic devices. We find that the nonlinear coupling between confined optical modes on the chip and continuum modes in free space can be greatly enhanced on the platform of integrated microcavity, with feasible relaxation of the phase-matching condition. With an infrared pump laser, we observe the vertical radiation of second-harmonic wave at the visible band, which indicates a robust phase-matching-free chip-to-free-space frequency converter and also unveils an extra energy dissipation channel for integrated devices. Such an unexpected coherent nonlinear interaction between the free-space beam and the confined mode is also validated by the different frequency generation. Furthermore, based on the phase-matching-free nature of the nonlinear radiation, we build an integrated atomic gas sensor to characterize Rb isotopes with a single telecom laser. The unveiled mechanism of nonlinear optical radiation is universal for all dielectric photonic integrated devices, and provides a simple and robust chip-to-free-space as well as visible-to-telecom interface.