• Two-proton radioactivity from excited states of proton-rich nuclei within Coulomb and Proximity

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-07-25

    摘要:We extend the Coulomb and Proximity Potential Model (CPPM) to study two-proton ($2p$) radioactivity from excited states while the proximity potential is chosen as AW95 proposed by Aage Withner in 1995. Demonstration reveals that the theoretical results acquired by CPPM exhibit a high level of consistency with prior theoretical models, such as the unified fission model (UFM), generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) and effective liquid drop model (ELDM). Furthermore, within the CPPM, we predicted the half-lives of potential $2p$ radioactive nuclei for which experimental data are currently unavailable. The predicted results were then assessed, compared with UFM, ELDM, and GLDM models, and examined in detail.

  • Galaxy-Scale Test of General Relativity with Strong Gravitational Lensing

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要:Although general relativity (GR) has been precisely tested at the solar system scale, precise tests at a galactic or cosmological scale are still relatively insufficient. Here, in order to test GR at the galactic scale, we use the newly compiled galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing (SGL) sample to constrain the parameter $\gamma_{PPN}$ in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. We employ the Pantheon sample of type Ia supernovae observation to calibrate the distances in the SGL systems using the Gaussian Process method, which avoids the logical problem caused by assuming a cosmological model within GR to determine the distances in the SGL sample. Furthermore, we consider three typical lens models in this work to investigate the influences of the lens mass distributions on the fitting results. We find that the choice of the lens models has a significant impact on the constraints on the PPN parameter $\gamma_{PPN}$. We use the Bayesian information criterion as an evaluation tool to make a comparison for the fitting results of the three lens models, and we find that the most reliable lens model gives the result of $\gamma_{PPN}=1.065^{+0.064}_{-0.074}$, which is in good agreement with the prediction of $\gamma_{PPN}=1$ by GR. As far as we know, our 6.4% constraint result is the best result so far among the recent works using the SGL method.

  • Loss Mechanism Analyses of Perovskite Solar Cells with an Equivalent Circuit Model

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要:Understanding and quantifying the main loss factors affecting the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells are urgently needed. In this work, based on semiconductor physics, the expressions of bulk and surface recombination currents are analytically derived. Then taking the optical loss, series and shunt resistance losses, and bulk and surface recombination losses into consideration, an equivalent circuit model is proposed to describe the current density-voltage characteristics of practical perovskite solar cells. Furthermore, by comparing to the drift-diffusion model, the pre-defined physical parameters of the drift-diffusion model well agree with the fitting parameters retrieved by the equivalent circuit model, which verifies the reliability of the proposed model. Moreover, when the circuit model is applied to analyze experimental results, the fitting outcomes show favorable consistency to the physical investigations offered by the experiments. And the relative fitting errors of the above cases are all less than 2%. Through employing the model, the dominant recombination type is clearly identified and split current density-voltage curves characterizing different loss mechanisms are offered, which intuitively reveals the physical principles of efficiency loss. Additionally, through calculating the efficiency loss ratios under the open-circuit voltage condition, quantifying the above-mentioned loss mechanisms becomes simple and compelling. Consequently, this model offers a guideline to approach the efficiency limit from a circuit-level perspective. And the model is a comprehensive simulation and analysis tool for understanding the device physics of perovskite solar cells.

  • Nonreciprocal thermal radiation in ultrathin magnetized epsilon-near-zero semiconductors

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要:Spectral/angular emissivity $e$ and absorptivity ${\alpha}$ of an object are widely believed to be identical by Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation in reciprocal systems, but this introduces an intrinsic and inevitable energy loss for energy conversion and harvesting devices. So far, experimental evidences of breaking this well-known balance are still absent, and previous theoretical proposals are restricted to narrow single-band nonreciprocal radiation. Here we observe for the first time, to our knowledge, the violation of Kirchhoff's law using ultrathin ($<{\lambda}/40$, ${\lambda}$ is the working wavelength) magnetized InAs semiconductor films at epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) frequencies. Large difference of $|{\alpha}-e|>0.6$ has been experimentally demonstrated under a moderate external magnetic field. Moreover, based on magnetized ENZ building blocks supporting asymmetrically radiative Berreman and surface ENZ modes, we show versatile shaping of nonreciprocal thermal radiation: single-band, dual-band, and broadband nonreciprocal emission spectra at different wavebands. Our findings of breaking Kirchhoff's law will advance the conventional understanding of emission and absorption processes of natural objects, and lay a solid foundation for more comprehensive studies in designing various nonreciprocal thermal emitters. The reported recipe of diversely shaping nonreciprocal emission will also breed new possibilities in renovating next-generation nonreciprocal energy devices in the areas of solar cells, thermophotovoltaic, radiative cooling, etc.

  • Improved comb and dual-comb operation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers utilizing a symmetric

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要:In the terahertz frequency range, the quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a suitable platform for the frequency comb and dual-comb operation. Improved comb performances have been always much in demand. In this work, by employing a symmetric thermal dissipation scheme, we report an improved frequency comb and dual-comb operation of terahertz QCLs. Two configurations of cold fingers, i.e., type A and B with asymmetric and symmetric thermal dissipation schemes, respectively, are investigated here. A finite-element thermal analysis is carried out to study the parametric effects on the thermal management of the terahertz QCL. The modeling reveals that the symmetric thermal dissipation (type B) results in a more uniform thermal conduction and lower maximum temperature in the active region of the laser, compared to the traditional asymmetric thermal dissipation scheme (type A). To verify the simulation, experiments are further performed by measuring laser performance and comb characteristics of terahertz QCLs emitting around 4.2 THz mounted on type A and type B cold fingers. The experimental results show that the symmetric thermal dissipation approach (type B) is effective for improving the comb and dual-comb operation of terahertz QCLs, which can be further widely adopted for spectroscopy, imaging, and near-field applications.

  • Furin, a potential therapeutic target for COVID-19

    分类: 医学、药学 >> 药学 提交时间: 2020-02-23

    摘要:A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infectious disease has broken out in Wuhan, Hubei Province since December 2019, and spread rapidly from Wuhan to other areas, which has been listed as an international concerning public health emergency. We compared the Spike proteins from four sources, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and Bat-CoVRaTG13, and found that the SARS-CoV-2 virus sequence had redundant PRRA sequences. Through a series of analyses, we propose the reason why SARS-CoV-2is more infectious than other coronaviruses. And through structure based virtual ligand screening, we foundpotentialfurin inhibitors, which might be used in the treatment of new coronary pneumonia.

  • Broadband Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Dual-Comb Sources with Off-Resonant Microwave Injection

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要:Broadband dual-comb spectroscopy has attracted increasing interests due to its unique advantages in high spectral resolution, fast detection, and so on. Although the dual-comb technique is relatively mature in the infrared wavelengths, it is, currently, not commercially capable of practical applications in the terahertz regime due to the lack of high performance broadband terahertz dual-comb sources. In the terahertz frequency range, the electrically pumped quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a suitable candidate for the dual-comb operation. However, free running terahertz QCL dual-comb sources normally show limited optical bandwidths ($\sim$100-200 GHz). Although the resonant microwave injection locking has been widely used to broaden the emission spectra of terahertz QCLs by modulating the laser drive current at the cavity round-trip frequency, it is hard to be employed to broaden the dual-comb bandwidths due to the large phase noise induced by the resonant injection and non-ideal microwave circuits. Therefore, it is challenging to obtain broadband terahertz dual-comb sources that can fully exploits the laser gain bandwidth. Here, we employ an off-resonant microwave injection to significantly broaden the dual-comb bandwidth of a terahertz QCL dual-comb source emitting around 4.2 THz. The measured optical dual-comb bandwidth is broadened from 147 GHz in free running to $>$450 GHz under the off-resonant injection. The broadened dual-comb bandwidth is experimentally proved by the transmission measurements of a filter and a GaAs etalon. By performing a simple numerical analysis based on a rate equation model, we explain that the broadband dual-comb operation under the off-resonant microwave injection could be resulted from a wider lasing bandwidth and a higher degree of phase matching.

  • Self-Referenced Terahertz Semiconductor Dual-Comb Sources

    分类: 光学 >> 量子光学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要:Employing two frequency combs with a slight difference in repetition frequencies, the dual-comb source shows unique advantages in high precision spectroscopy, imaging, ranging, communications, etc. In the terahertz (THz) frequency range, the electrically pumped quantum cascade laser (QCL) offers the possibility of realizing the compact dual-comb source due to its semiconductor-based chip-scale configuration. Although the active stabilization of a THz QCL dual-comb source was demonstrated by phase locking one of the dual-comb lines, the full stabilization of all dual-comb lines is still challenging. Here, we propose a self-reference method to obtain a fully stabilized dual-comb signal on a pure THz QCL platform. Without using any external locking components, we filter out one dual-comb line and beat it with the whole dual-comb signal, which eliminates the common carrier offset frequency noise and reduces the dual-comb repetition frequency noise. It is experimentally demonstrated that the self-reference technique can significantly improve the long-term stability of the dual-comb signal. A record of the ``maxhold" linewidth of 14.8 kHz (60 s time duration) is obtained by implementing the self-reference technique, while without the self-reference the dual-comb lines show a ``maxhold" linewidth of 2 MHz (15 s time duration). The method provides the simplest way to improve the long-term stability of THz QCL dual-comb sources, which can be further adopted for high precision measurements.