摘要： Delay discounting (DD) is the phenomenon that individuals prefer to choose an immediate but smaller reward than a delayed but larger reward. Larger DD is considered as an indicator of impulsivity, the increased DD rate is also seen as a behavior indictor of various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the ability to project oneself into the future to pre-experience the future events, which can be used to reduce DD. The present study provided a meta-analysis on the efficiency of EFT in reducing DD and examined potential moderators. Thirty-seven studies including 48 contrasts were included, results showed that EFT reduced DD significantly. Moderator and meta-regression analyses revealed that positive EFT was more efficient in reducing DD. In addition, several factors related to DD task (e.g., whether the DD money is hypothetical or potential real, whether the delay reward is fixed or variable, and the indexes of DD) were related to the efficiency of EFT in reducing DD. These results have implications for using EFT to reduce DD in the future.
摘要：Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a wide range of cognitive impairments. Mental time travel (MTT) is the ability to mentally re-experience past events and pre-experience possible future events. Studies have shown MTT impairments in individuals with ASD, however, these findings may be confounded by a number of factors including verbal ability to report MTT, factors related to MTT task and demographic factors of participants. The present study provided a meta-analysis on MTT deficits in individuals with ASD and examined the potential moderating variables for these impairments. Twenty-six studies were included, and the participants comprised 667 individuals with ASD and 671 healthy controls. Results showed significant overall MTT impairments (Cohen’s d = −0.95) in individuals with ASD. Moderator and meta-regression analyses revealed that verbal IQ was significantly related to MTT impairments; type of MTT, type of task, measurement indices of MTT, age of participants, gender ratio and full IQ did not explain the MTT impairments. These findings suggest that MTT is severely impaired in individuals with ASD, verbal IQ contributed to MTT impairments, and task characteristics did not affect the degree of impairments.