摘要：Owing to the immobility of traditional reactors and spallation neutron sources, the demand for compact thermal neutron radiography (CTNR) based on accelerator neutron sources has rapidly increased in industrial applications. Recently, thermal neutron radiography experiments based on a D-T neutron generator performed by Hefei Institutes of Physical Science indicated a significant resolution deviation between the experimental results and the values calculated using the traditional resolution model. The experimental result was up to 23% lower than the calculated result, which hinders the achievement of the design goal of a compact neutron radiography system. A GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was developed to simulate the CTNR process, aiming to identify the key factors leading to resolution deviation. The effects of a low collimation ratio and high-energy neutrons were analyzed based on the neutron beam environment of the CTNR system. The results showed that the deviation was primarily caused by geometric distortion at low collimation ratios and radiation noise induced by high 1 energy neutrons. Additionally, the theoretical model was modified by considering the imaging position and radiation noise factors. The modified theoretical model was in good agreement with the experimental results, and the maximum deviation was reduced to 4.22%. This can be useful for the high-precision design of CTNR systems.