摘要：In this paper, we will give a general introduction to the project of Ali CMB Polarization Tele-scope (AliCPT), which is a Sino-US joint project led by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and has involved many di erent institutes in China. It is the rst ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment in China and an integral part of China's Gravitational Waves Program. The main scienti c goal of AliCPT project is to probe the primor-dial gravitational waves (PGWs) originated from the very early Universe. The AliCPT project includes two stages. The rst stage referred to as AliCPT-1, is to build a telescope in the Ali region of Tibet with an altitude of 5,250 meters. Once completed, it will be the worldwide highest ground-based CMB observatory and open a new window for probing PGWs in northern hemisphere. AliCPT-1 telescope is designed to have about 7,000 TES detectors at 90GHz and 150GHz. The second stage is to have a more sensitive telescope (AliCPT-2) with the number of detectors more than 20,000. Our simulations show that AliCPT will improve the current constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by one order of magnitude with 3 years' observation. Besides the PGWs, the AliCPT will also enable a precise measurement on the CMB rotation angle and provide a precise test on the CPT symmetry. We show 3 years' observation will improve the current limit by two order of magnitude.
摘要：Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB) power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the thermal dust emission. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recent polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio爎燽y considering the polarization rotation angle which can be separated into a background isotropic part and a small anisotropic part. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the "self-calibration" method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including the anisotropies in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on爎, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle can not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on爎爓ill be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial gravitational waves accurately.
摘要：>Flowering is a highly orchestrated and extremely critical process in a plant's life cycle. Previous study has demonstrated that SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) integrate the gibberellic acid (GA) signaling pathway and vernalization pathway in regulating flowering time, but detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. In GA signaling pathway, DELLA proteins are a group of master transcriptional regulators, while in vernalization pathway FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a core transcriptional repressor that down-regulates the expression of SOC1 and FT. Here, we report that DELLA proteins interact with FLC in vitro and in vivo, and the LHRI domains of DELLAs and the C-terminus of MADS domain of FLC are required for these interactions. Phenotypic and gene expression analysis showed that mutation of FLC reduces while over-expression of FLC enhances the GA response in the flowering process. Further, DELLA-FLC interactions promote the repression ability of FLC on its target genes. In summary, these findings report that the interaction between MADS box transcription factor FLC and GRAS domain regulator DELLAs may integrate various signaling inputs in flowering time control, and shed new light on the regulatory mechanism both for FLC and DELLAs in regulating gene expression.