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  • Small-scale magnetic flux ropes and their properties based on in-situ measurements from Parker Solar Probe

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: We report small-scale magnetic flux ropes via the Parker Solar Probe in situ measurements during the first six encounters and present additional analyses to supplement our prior work in Chen et al. 2021. These flux ropes are detected by the Grad-Shafranov-based algorithm with the duration and scale size ranging from 10 seconds to $\lesssim$1 hour and from a few hundred kilometers to 10$^{-3}$ au, respectively. They include both static structures and those with significant field-aligned plasma flows. Most structures tend to possess large cross helicity, while the residual energy distributes in wide ranges. We find that these dynamic flux ropes mostly propagate anti-sunward, with no preferential sign of magnetic helicity. The magnetic flux function follows a power law and is proportional to scale size. We also present case studies showing reconstructed two-dimensional (2D) configurations, which confirm that the static and dynamic flux ropes have the common configuration of spiral magnetic field lines (also streamlines). Moreover, the existence of such events hints at the interchange reconnection as a possible mechanism to generate flux rope-like structures near the Sun. Lastly, we summarize the major findings and discuss the possible correlation between these flux rope-like structures and turbulence due to the process of local Alfvenic alignment.

  • A Magnetic Flux Rope Configuration Derived by Optimization of Two-Spacecraft In-situ Measurements

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Increasingly one interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) structure can propagate across more than one spacecraft in the solar wind. This usually happens when two or more spacecraft are nearly radially aligned with a relatively small longitudinal separation angle from one another. This provides multi-point measurements of the same structure and enables better characterization and validation of modeling results of the structures embedded in these ICMEs. We report such an event during October 13-14, 2019 when the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Ahead (STA) spacecraft and the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) crossed one ICME structure at two different locations with nominal separations in both heliocentric distances and the longitudinal angles. We first perform an optimal fitting to the STA in-situ measurements, based on an analytic quasi-three dimensional (3D) model, yielding a minimum reduced $\chi^2=0.468$. Then we further apply the optimization approach by combining the magnetic field measurements from both spacecraft along their separate paths across the ICME structure. We find that the output based on the optimization (with the minimum reduced $\chi^2=3.15$) of the combined two-spacecraft dataset yields a more consistent result, given the much improved agreement of the model output with PSP data. The result demonstrates a magnetic flux rope configuration with clear 3D spatial variations.

  • Configuration of a Magnetic Cloud from Solar Orbiter and Wind Spacecraft In-situ Measurements

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) represent one type of the major eruption from the Sun. Their interplanetary counterparts, the interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), are the direct manifestations of these structures when they propagate into the heliosphere and encounter one or more observing spacecraft. The ICMEs generally exhibit a set of distinctive signatures from the in-situ spacecraft measurements. A particular subset of ICMEs, the so-called Magnetic Clouds (MCs), is more uniquely defined and has been studied for decades, based on in-situ magnetic field and plasma measurements. By utilizing the latest multiple spacecraft measurements and analysis tools, we report a detailed study of the internal magnetic field configuration of an MC event observed by both the Solar Orbiter (SO) and Wind spacecraft in the solar wind near the Sun-Earth line. Both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models are applied to reveal the flux rope configurations of the MC. Various geometrical as well as physical parameters are derived and found to be similar within error estimates for the two methods. These results quantitatively characterize the coherent MC flux rope structure crossed by the two spacecraft along different paths. The implication for the radial evolution of this MC event is also discussed.

  • Quantitative Characterization of Magnetic Flux Rope Properties for Two Solar Eruption Events

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: In order to bridge the gap between heliospheric and solar observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), one of the key steps is to improve the understanding of their corresponding magnetic structures like the magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). But it remains a challenge to confirm the existence of a coherent MFR before or upon the CME eruption on the Sun and to quantitatively characterize the CME-MFR due to the lack of direct magnetic field measurement in the corona. In this study, we investigate the MFR structures, originating from two active regions (ARs), AR 11719 and AR 12158, and estimate their magnetic properties quantitatively. We perform the nonlinear force-free field extrapolations with preprocessed photospheric vector magnetograms. In addition, remote-sensing observations are employed to find indirect evidence of MFRs on the Sun and to analyze the time evolution of magnetic reconnection flux associated with the flare ribbons during the eruption. A coherent "pre-existing" MFR structure prior to the flare eruption is identified quantitatively for one event from the combined analysis of the extrapolation and observation. Then the characteristics of MFRs for two events on the Sun before and during the eruption, forming the CME-MFR, including the axial magnetic flux, field-line twist, and reconnection flux, are estimated and compared with the corresponding in situ modeling results. We find that the magnetic reconnection associated with the accompanying flares for both events injects significant amount of flux into the erupted CME-MFRs.

  • Small-scale Magnetic Flux Ropes with Field-aligned Flows via the PSP In-situ Observations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Magnetic flux rope, formed by the helical magnetic field lines, can sometimes remain its shape while carrying significant plasma flow that is aligned with the local magnetic field. We report the existence of such structures and static flux ropes by applying the Grad-Shafranov-based algorithm to the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) in-situ measurements in the first five encounters. These structures are detected at heliocentric distances, ranging from 0.13 to 0.66 au, in a total of 4-month time period. We find that flux ropes with field-aligned flows, although occur more frequently, have certain properties similar to those of static flux ropes, such as the decaying relations of the magnetic fields within structures with respect to heliocentric distances. Moreover, these events are more likely with magnetic pressure dominating over the thermal pressure. About one-third of events are detected in the relatively fast-speed solar wind. Taking into account the high Alfvenicity, we also compare with switchback spikes identified during three encounters and interpret their inter-relations. We find that some switchbacks can be detected when the spacecraft traverses flux rope-like structures. The cross-section maps for selected events are presented via the new Grad-Shafranov type reconstruction. Finally, the possible evolution of the magnetic flux rope structures in the inner heliosphere is discussed.

  • Validation and interpretation of three-dimensional configuration of a magnetic cloud flux rope

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: One "strong" magnetic cloud (MC) with the magnetic field magnitude reaching $\sim$ 40 nT at 1 au during 2012 June 16-17 is examined in association with a pre-existing magnetic flux rope (MFR) identified on the Sun. The MC is characterized by a quasi-three dimensional (3D) flux rope model based on in situ measurements from the Wind spacecraft. The magnetic flux contents and other parameters are quantified. In addition, a correlative study with the corresponding measurements of the same structure crossed by the Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft at a heliocentric distance 0.7 au and with an angular separation $\sim 6^\circ$ in longitude is performed to validate the MC modeling results. The spatial variation between the Wind and VEX magnetic field measurements is attributed to the 3D configuration of the structure as featured by a knotted bundle of flux. The comparison of the magnetic flux contents between the MC and the source region on the Sun indicates that the 3D reconnection process accompanying an M1.9 flare may correspond to the magnetic reconnection between the field lines of the pre-existing MFR rooted in the opposite polarity footpoints. Such a process reduces the amount of the axial magnetic flux in the erupted flux rope, by approximately 50\%, in this case.

  • Investigating pre-eruptive magnetic properties at the footprints of erupting magnetic flux ropes

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: It is well established that solar eruptions are powered by free magnetic energy stored in current-carrying magnetic field in the corona. It has also been generally accepted that magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are a critical component of many coronal mass ejections (CMEs). What remains controversial is whether MFRs are present well before the eruption. Our aim is to identify progenitors of MFRs, and investigate pre-eruptive magnetic properties associated with these progenitors. Here we analyze 28 MFRs erupting within 45 deg from the disk center from 2010 to 2015. All MFRs'feet are well identified by conjugate coronal dimmings. We then calculate magnetic properties at the feet of the MFRs, prior to their eruptions, using Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms. Our results show that only 8 erupting MFRs are associated with significant non-neutralized electric currents, 4 of which also exhibit pre-eruptive dimmings at the foot-prints. Twist and current distributions are asymmetric at the two feet of these MFRs. The presence of pre-eruption dimmings associated with non-neutralized currents suggests the pre-existing MFRs. Furthermore, evolution of conjugate dimmings and electric currents within the foot-prints can provide clues about the internal structure of MFRs and their formation mechanism.

  • Investigating pre-eruptive magnetic properties at the footprints of erupting magnetic flux ropes

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: It is well established that solar eruptions are powered by free magnetic energy stored in current-carrying magnetic field in the corona. It has also been generally accepted that magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are a critical component of many coronal mass ejections (CMEs). What remains controversial is whether MFRs are present well before the eruption. Our aim is to identify progenitors of MFRs, and investigate pre-eruptive magnetic properties associated with these progenitors. Here we analyze 28 MFRs erupting within 45 deg from the disk center from 2010 to 2015. All MFRs'feet are well identified by conjugate coronal dimmings. We then calculate magnetic properties at the feet of the MFRs, prior to their eruptions, using Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms. Our results show that only 8 erupting MFRs are associated with significant non-neutralized electric currents, 4 of which also exhibit pre-eruptive dimmings at the foot-prints. Twist and current distributions are asymmetric at the two feet of these MFRs. The presence of pre-eruption dimmings associated with non-neutralized currents suggests the pre-existing MFRs. Furthermore, evolution of conjugate dimmings and electric currents within the foot-prints can provide clues about the internal structure of MFRs and their formation mechanism.

  • The Inhomogeneity of Composition along the Magnetic Cloud Axis

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: It is generally accepted that CMEs result from eruptions of magnetic flux ropes, which are dubbed as magnetic clouds in interplanetary space. The composition (including the ionic charge states and elemental abundances) is determined prior to and/or during CME eruptions in the solar atmosphere, and does not alter during magnetic cloud propagation to 1 AU and beyond. It has been known that the composition is not uniform within a cross section perpendicular to magnetic cloud axis, and the distribution of ionic charge states within a cross section provides us an important clue to investigate the formation and eruption processes of flux ropes due to the freeze-in effect. The flux rope is a three dimensional magnetic structure intrinsically, and it remains unclear whether the composition is uniform along the flux rope axis as most magnetic clouds are only detected by one spacecraft. In this paper we report a magnetic cloud that was observed by ACE near 1 AU on 1998 March 4--6 and Ulysses near 5.4 AU on March 24--28 sequentially. At these times, both spacecraft were located around the ecliptic plane, and the latitudinal and longitudinal separations between them were $\sim$2.2$^{\circ}$ and $\sim$5.5$^{\circ}$, respectively. It provides us an excellent opportunity to explore the axial inhomogeneity of flux rope composition, as both spacecraft almost intersected the cloud center at different sites along its axis. Our study shows that the average values of ionic charge states exhibit significant difference along the axis for carbon, and the differences are relatively slight but still obvious for charge states of oxygen and iron, as well as the elemental abundances of iron and helium. Besides the means, the composition profiles within the cloud measured by both spacecraft also exhibit some discrepancies. We conclude that the inhomogeneity of composition exists along the cloud axis.

  • A fundamental mechanism of solar eruption initiation

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Solar eruptions are spectacular magnetic explosions in the Sun's corona, and how they are initiated remains unclear. Prevailing theories often rely on special magnetic topologies that may not generally exist in the pre-eruption source region of corona. Here, using fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with high accuracy, we show that solar eruptions can be initiated in a single bipolar configuration with no additional special topology. Through photospheric shearing motion alone, an electric current sheet forms in the highly sheared core field of the magnetic arcade during its quasi-static evolution. Once magnetic reconnection sets in, the whole arcade is expelled impulsively, forming a fast-expanding twisted flux rope with a highly turbulent reconnecting region underneath. The simplicity and efficacy of this scenario argue strongly for its fundamental importance in the initiation of solar eruptions.

  • The Emission Order of Hydrogen Isotopes via Correlation Functions in 30 MeV/u Ar+Au Reactions

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-11-25

    摘要: The intensity interferometry is applied as a chronometer of the particle emission of hydrogen isotopes from the intermediate velocity source formed in $^{40}$Ar+$^{197}$Au reactions at 30 MeV/u. The dynamic emission order of $ tau_{ rm p}> tau_{ rm d}> tau_{ rm t}$ is evidenced via the correlation functions of nonidentical particle pairs. Assuming the similar source size, the same emission order is inferred from the correlation functions of identical particle pairs, where $ tau_{ rm p} approx 100 { rm ~fm/c}$ is extracted by the fit of Koonin-Pratt equation to p-p correlation function. Transport model simulations demonstrate that the dynamic emission order of light charged particles depends on the stiffness of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  • Revisit to the yield ratio of triton and $^3$He as an indicator of neutron-rich neck emission

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-11-15

    摘要: The neutron rich neck zone created in heavy ion reaction is experimentally probed by the production of the $A=3$ isobars. The energy spectra and angular distributions of triton and $^3$He are measured with the CSHINE detector in $^{86}$Kr +$^{208}$Pb reactions at 25 MeV/u. While the energy spectrum of $^{3}$He is harder than that of triton, known as "$^{3}$He-puzzle", the yield ratio $R({ rm t/^3He})$ presents a robust rising trend with the polar angle in laboratory. Using the fission fragments to reconstruct the fission plane, the enhancement of out-plane $R({ rm t/^3He})$ is confirmed in comparison to the in-plane ratios. Transport model simulations reproduce qualitatively the experimental trends, but the quantitative agreement is not achieved. The results demonstrate that a neutron rich neck zone is formed in the reactions. Further studies are called for to understand the clustering and the isospin dynamics related to neck formation.

  • Observing the Ping-pong Modality of Isospin Degree of Freedom in Cluster Emission from Heavy Ion Reactions

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2023-11-14

    摘要: Two-body correlations of the isotope-resolved light and heavy clusters are measured in 86Kr+ 208Pb reactions at 25 MeV/u. The yield and kinetic variables of the A = 3 isobars, triton and 3He, are analyzed in coincidence with the heavy clusters of 7 ≤ A ≤ 14 emitted at the earlier chance. While the velocity spectra of both triton and 3He exhibit scaling behavior over the type of the heavy clusters, the yield ratios of t/ 3He correlate reversely to the neutron-to-proton ratio N/Z of the latter, showing the ping-pong modality of the N/Z of emitted clusters. The commonality that the N/Z of the residues keeps the initial system value is extended to the cluster emission in heavy ion reactions. The comparison of transport model calculations to the data is discussed.

  • The Structure and Origin of Switchbacks: Parker Solar Probe Observations

    分类: 天文学 >> 天文学 提交时间: 2023-02-19

    摘要: Switchbacks are rapid magnetic field reversals that last from seconds to hours. Current Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observations pose many open questions in regards to the nature of switchbacks. For example, are they stable as they propagate through the inner heliosphere, and how are they formed? In this work, we aim to investigate the structure and origin of switchbacks. In order to study the stability of switchbacks, we suppose the small scale current sheets therein may work to braid and stabilize the switchbacks. Thus, we use the partial variance of increments method to identify the small scale current sheets, and then compare their distributions in switchbacks. With more than one thousand switchbacks identified with PSP observations in seven encounters, we find many more current sheets inside than outside switchbacks, indicating that these micro-structures should work to stabilize the S-shape structures of switchbacks. Additionally, with the helium measurements, we study the variations of helium abundance ratios and alpha-proton differential speeds to trace switchbacks to their origins. We find both helium-rich and helium-poor populations in switchbacks, implying the switchbacks could originate from both closed and open magnetic field regions in the Sun. Moreover, we observe that the alpha-proton differential speeds also show complex variations as compared to the local Alfv\'en speed. The joint distributions of both parameters show that low helium abundance together with low differential speed is the dominant state in switchbacks. The presence of small scale current sheets in switchbacks along with the helium features are in line with the hypothesis that switchbacks could originate from the Sun via interchange reconnection process. However, other formation mechanisms are not excluded.