摘要： Miscanthus lutarioriparius is an endemic species that grows along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and is a valuable source of germplasm for the development of second-generation energy crops. The plant that propagates via seeds, stem nodes, and rhizomes shows high phenotypic variation and strong local adaptation. Here, we examined the magnitude and spatial distribution of genetic variation in M. lutarioriparius across its entire distributional range and tested underlying factors that shaped its genetic variation. Population genetic analyses were conducted on 644 individuals from 25 populations using 16 microsatellite markers. M. lutarioriparius exhibited a high level of genetic variation (HE = 0.682–0.786; Ar = 4.74–8.06) and a low differentiation (FST = 0.063; Dest = 0.153). Of the total genetic variation, 10% was attributed to the differences among populations (df = 24, P < 0.0001), whereas 90% was attributed to the differences among individuals (df = 619, P ≤ 0.0001). Genetic diversity did not differ significantly across longitudes and did not increase in the populations growing downstream of the Yangtze River. However, significant associations were found between genetic differentiation and spatial distance. Six genetic discontinuities were identified, which mostly distributed among downstream populations. We conclude that anthropogenic factors and landscape features both contributed to shaping the pattern of gene flow in M. lutarioriparius, including long-distance bidirectional dispersal. Our results explain the genetic basis of the high degree of adaptability in M. lutarioriparius and identify potential sources of new germplasm for the domestication of this potential second-generation energy crop.
摘要： Macromolecular crystallography beamline BL17U1 at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility has been relocated, upgraded, and given a new ID (BL02U1). It now delivers X-rays in the energy range of 6–16 keV, with a focused beam of 11.6 µm × 4.8 µm and photon flux greater than 10^12 phs/s. The high credibility and stability of the beam and good timing synchronization of the equipment significantly improve the experimental efficiency. Since June 2021, when it officially opened to users, over 4200 h of beamtime have been provided to over 200 research groups to collect data at the beamline. Its good performance and stable operation have led to the resolution of several structures based on data collected at the beamline.
摘要： BL10U2 is an undulator-based macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamline located at the 3.5-GeV Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. BL10U2 is specifically designed for conducting routine and bio safety level-2 (BSL-2) MX experiments utilizing high-flux tunable X-rays with energies from 7 to 18 keV, providing a beam spot size of 20 µm (horizontal) × 10 µm (vertical) at the sample point. Certification by the Shanghai Pudong Municipal Health Commission confirmed the capability to perform BSL-2 MX experiments. The beamline is currently equipped with an Eiger X 16M detector and two newly developed in-house high-precision diffractometers that can be switched to perform conventional or in situ crystal diffraction experiments. An automatic sample changer developed in-house allows fast sample exchange in less than 30s, supporting high-throughput MX experimentation and rapid crystal screening. Data collection from both the diffractometer and detector was controlled by an in-house developed data collection software (Finback) with a user-friendly interface for convenient operation. This study presents a comprehensive overview of the facilities, experimental methods, and performance characteristics of the BL10U2 beamline.