With growing interest in Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) of High-entropy alloys (HEAs) during most recent years, the design of compositional elements and process strategies are primary methods to overcome undesirable microstructures and defects. Here we propose a new approach, a novel real-time Laser Shocking of Melt Pool (LSMP), to obtain melt pool modifications for yielding HEAs with desired characteristics. LSMP utilizes a pulsed laser shocking a liquid melt pool caused by a continuous wave laser, enabling non-destructive and real-time modulations for high-performance HEAs. The numerical simulation reveals the convection mechanism of the melt pool in the LSMP process, and the intervention of the pulsed laser promotes melt pool flow type to convert the Marangoni effect into a multi-convective ring, which accelerates melt pool flow and inhibits columnar crystal growth. Experimental results show the evolution law of the microstructure in the LSMP process. The microstructure of CrFeCoNi HEAs undergoes a Columnar-Equiaxed Transition (CET), and higher hardness is obtained. Laser shock is demonstrated to be an effective in-situ modulative tool for controlled additive manufacturing.
A novel hybrid laser additive manufacturing process based on laser shock modulation of molten pool was proposed in this work. The flow behavior residual stress, and microstructure of the molten pool were comprehensively characterized by a combination of experiments and simulations. The relationship between the convection behavior, evolution of microstructure, and enhancement of residual stress induced by laser shock modulation was established. Laser shock modulation assisted additive manufacturing process exhibits high efficiency in residual stress control. The hidden mechanism in microstructure evolution and residual stress enhancement was expected to be related to intensified molten pool convection, uniform solute distribution and improved cooling rate induced by shock wave. The hybrid additive manufacturing process strategy based on laser shock modulation provides a new approach for heat and mass modulation in hybrid manufacturing.