摘要：Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are typically used to optimize two or three objectives in the accelerator field and perform well. However, the performance of these algorithms may severely deteriorate when the optimization objectives for an accelerator [A1] are equal to or greater than four. Recently, many-objective evolutionary algorithms (MaOEAs) that can solve problems with four or more optimization objectives have received extensive attention. In this study, two diffraction-limited storage ring (DLSR) lattices of the ESRF-EBS [A2] type with different energies were designed and optimized using three MaOEAs and a widely used MOEA. The initial population[A3] was found to have a significant impact on the performance of the algorithms and was carefully studied. The performances of the four algorithms were compared, and the results demonstrated that the grid-based evolutionary algorithm (GrEA) had the best performance. MaOEAs were applied in many-objective optimization of DLSR lattices for the first time, and lattices with natural emittances of 116 pm∙rad and 23 pm∙rad were obtained at energies of 2 GeV and 6 GeV, respectively, both with reasonable dynamic aperture and local momentum aperture (LMA). This work provides a valuable reference for future multi-objective optimization of DLSRs.
High-brightness electron beams are required to drive LINAC-based free-electron lasers (FELs) and storage-ring-based synchrotron radiation light sources. The bunch charge and RMS bunch length at the exit of the LINAC play a crucial role in the peak current; the minimum transverse emittance is mainly determined by the injector of the LINAC. Thus, a photoinjector with a high bunch charge and low emittance that can simultaneously provide high-quality beams for 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources and FELs is desirable. The design of a 1.6-cell S-band 2998-MHz RF gun and beam dynamics optimization of a relevant beamline are presented in this paper. Beam dynamics simulations were performed by combining ASTRA and the multi-objective genetic algorithm NSGA II. The effects of the laser pulse shape, half-cell length of the RF gun, and RF parameters on the output beam quality were analyzed and compared. The normalized transverse emittance was optimized to be as low as 0.65 and 0.92 mm·mrad when the bunch charge was as high as 1 and 2 nC, respectively. Finally, the beam stability properties of the photoinjector, considering misalignment and RF jitter, were simulated and analyzed.