分类： 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间： 2023-03-19 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：We demonstrate the use of cryogenic super-resolution correlative light and electron microscopy (csCLEM) to precisely determine the spatial relationship between proteins and their native cellular structures. Several fluorescent proteins (FPs) were found to be photoswitchable and emitted far more photons under our cryogenic imaging condition, resulting in higher localization precision which is comparable to ambient super-resolution imaging. Vitrified specimens were prepared by high pressure freezing and cryo-sectioning to maintain a near-native state with better fluorescence preservation. A 2-3-fold improvement of resolution over the recent reports was achieved due to the photon budget performance of screening out Dronpa and optimized imaging conditions, even with thin sections which is at a disadvantage when calculate the structure resolution from label density. We extended csCLEM to mammalian cells by introducing cryo-sectioning and observed good correlation of a mitochondrial protein with the mitochondrial outer membrane at nanometer resolution in three dimensions.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 生物物理、生物化学与分子生物学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：UNC-13-Munc13s have a central function in synaptic-vesicle priming through their MUN domains. However, it is unclear whether this function arises from the ability of the MUN domain to mediate the transition from the Munc18-1-closed syntaxin-1 complex to the SNARE complex in vitro. The crystal structure of the rat Munc13-1 MUN domain now reveals an elongated, arch-shaped architecture formed by a-helical bundles, with a highly conserved hydrophobic pocket in the middle. Mutation of two residues (NF) in this pocket abolishes the stimulation caused by the Munc13-1 MUN domain on SNARE-complex assembly and on SNARE-dependent proteoliposome fusion in vitro. Moreover, the same mutation in UNC-13 abrogates synaptic-vesicle priming in Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions. These results support the notion that orchestration of syntaxin-1 opening and SNARE-complex assembly underlies the central role of UNC-13-Munc13s in synaptic-vesicle priming.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：Neuropeptides play a variety of roles in many physiological processes and serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of some nervous-system disorders. In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified neuropeptides. Therefore, we have developed NeuroPep, a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides, which holds 5949 non-redundant neuropeptide entries originating from 493 organisms belonging to 65 neuropeptide families. In NeuroPep, the number of neuropeptides in invertebrates and vertebrates is 3455 and 2406, respectively. It is currently the most complete neuropeptide database. We extracted entries deposited in UniProt, the database (www.neuropeptides.nl) and NeuroPedia, and used text mining methods to retrieve entries from the MEDLINE abstracts and full text articles. All the entries in NeuroPep have been manually checked. 2069 of the 5949 (35%) neuropeptide sequences were collected from the scientific literature. Moreover, NeuroPep contains detailed annotations for each entry, including source organisms, tissue specificity, families, names, post-translational modifications, 3D structures (if available) and literature references. Information derived from these peptide sequences such as amino acid compositions, iso-electric points, molecular weight and other physicochemical properties of peptides are also provided. A quick search feature allows users to search the database with keywords such as sequence, name, family, etc., and an advanced search page helps users to combine queries with logical operators like AND/OR. In addition, user-friendly web tools like browsing, sequence alignment and mapping are also integrated into the NeuroPep database.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 生物物理、生物化学与分子生物学 提交时间： 2016-05-11
摘要：Background: Phosphatidylinositides in the plasma membrane (PM) are pivotal for cellular functions. Results: Superresolution imaging reveals homogeneous distribution of PI(4,5)P-2, PI4P, and PI(3,4,5)P-3 in the major area of the PM. Conclusion: Phosphatidylinositides detected by PH domains are uniformly distributed in the major regions of the PM, with limited concentration gradients. Significance: This result may imply a new working model of phosphatidylinositides at nanometer scale. Both phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P-2) are independent plasma membrane (PM) determinant lipids that are essential for multiple cellular functions. However, their nanoscale spatial organization in the PM remains elusive. Using single-molecule superresolution microscopy and new photoactivatable fluorescence probes on the basis of pleckstrin homology domains that specifically recognize phosphatidylinositides in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells, we report that the PI(4,5)P-2 probes exhibited a remarkably uniform distribution in the major regions of the PM, with some sparse PI(4,5)P-2-enriched membrane patches/domains of diverse sizes (383 +/- 14 nm on average). Quantitative analysis revealed a modest concentration gradient that was much less steep than previously thought, and no densely packed PI(4,5)P-2 nanodomains were observed. Live-cell superresolution imaging further demonstrated the dynamic structural changes of those domains in the flat PM and membrane protrusions. PI4P and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P-3) showed similar spatial distributions as PI(4,5)P-2. These data reveal the nanoscale landscape of key inositol phospholipids in the native PM and imply a framework for local cellular signaling and lipid-protein interactions at a nanometer scale.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间： 2016-05-11
摘要：Aim: Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel, a subfamily of store-operated channels, is formed by calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1), and gated by stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). CRAC channel may be a novel target for the treatment of immune disorders and allergy. The aim of this study was to identify novel small molecule CRAC channel inhibitors. Methods: HEK293 cells stably co-expressing both ORAI1 and STIM1 were used for high-throughput screening. A hit, 1-phenyl-3-(1-phenylethyl)urea, was identified that inhibited CRAC channels by targeting ORAI1. Five series of its derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) were analyzed. All derivatives were assessed for their effects on Ca2+ influx through CRAC channels on HEK293 cells, cytotoxicity in Jurkat cells, and IL-2 production in Jurkat cells expressing ORAI1-SS-eGFP. Results: A total of 19 hits were discovered in libraries containing 32 000 compounds using the high-throughput screening. 1-Phenyl-3-(1-phenylethyl) urea inhibited Ca2+ influx with IC50 of 3.25 +/- 0.17 mu mol/L. SAR study on its derivatives showed that the alkyl substituent on the a-position of the left-side benzylic amine (R1) was essential for Ca2+ influx inhibition and that the S-configuration was better than the R-configuration. The derivatives in which the right-side R3 was substituted by an electron-donating group showed more potent inhibitory activity than those that were substituted by electron-withdrawing groups. Furthermore, the free N-H of urea was not necessary to maintain the high potency of Ca2+ influx inhibition. The N, N'-disubstituted or N'-substituted derivatives showed relatively low cytotoxicity but maintained the ability to inhibit IL-2 production. Among them, compound 5b showed an improved inhibition of IL-2 production and low cytotoxicity. Conclusion: 1-Phenyl-3-(1-phenylethyl) urea is a novel CRAC channel inhibitor that specifically targets ORAI1. This study provides a new chemical scaffold for design and development of CRAC channel inhibitors with improved Ca2+ influx inhibition, immune inhibition and low cytotoxicity.