摘要：Morality is an eternal topic that has been contemplated and pursued by both philosophers and lay people alike for thousands of years. Psychologists have found that individuals’ moral judgments, moral emotions, moral intentions, moral motivations, moral reasoning and moral behaviors are not internally consistent. Among which, moral behavior is most relevant to everyday life. Given that moral behaviors are influenced by various factors such as personality traits (e.g., virtue), social situations (e.g., time pressure), and social desirability (e.g., moral image), it is quite challenging to effectively and accurately measure moral behaviors both in the laboratory and in real-life social situations. Our current work synthesizes differing concepts of moral behaviors and their conceptual distinctions from diverse disciplinary perspectives. We then offer a selective review on differing paradigms such as scale method, laboratory experiment, virtual reality, field experiment, big data approaches and experience-sampling method. It is our hope that this work would inspire researchers to better capture and explore the complex and dynamic moral behaviors, and provide potential future prospects to the emerging trends of novel thoughts, theories, methods, paradigms and applications for unveiling moral behaviors and their underlying processes.
摘要： Our current work examined the interface of thinking style and mental health at both behavioral and neuropsychological levels which describe a predisposition to psychopathology. Thirty-nine Chinese participants were divided into high and low holistic thinkers based on the triad task scores, completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), and performed structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that high holistic thinkers were much less sensitive to reward than low holistic thinkers. Furthermore, their bilateral nucleus accumbens and right amygdala volumes were smaller than those of low holistic thinkers. Our integrated results showed that the relationship between holistic thinking tendency and the amygdala volume was mediated by the nucleus accumbens and the sensitivity to reward. Finally, resting-state functional connectivity results showed increased FC between left nucleus accumbens and bilateral amygdala in high holistic thinkers. The present synthetical results suggest that dialectical thinking may lead to better mental health outcomes.