WANG Jincheng; JING Mingbo; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Gaosen; ZHANG Binglin; LIU Guangxiu; CHEN Tuo; ZHAO Zhiguang
|The Loess Plateau, located in Gansu Province, is an important energy base in China because most of the oil and gas resources are distributed in Gansu Province. In the last 40 a, ecological environment in this region has been extremely destroyed due to the over-exploitation of crude-oil resources. Remediation of crude-oil contaminated soil in this area remains to be a challenging task. In this study, in order to elucidate the effects of organic compost and biochar on phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil (20 g/kg) by Calendula officinalis, we designed five treatments, i.e., natural attenuation (CK), planted C. officinalis only (P), planted C. officinalis with biochar amendment (PB), planted C. officinalis with organic compost amendment (PC), and planted C. officinalis with co-amendment of biochar and organic compost (PBC). After 152 d of cultivation, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal rates of CK, P, PB, PC and PBC were 6.36%, 50.08%, 39.58%, 73.10% and 59.87%, respectively. Shoot and root dry weights of C. officinalis significantly increased by 172.31% and 80.96% under PC and 311.61% and 145.43% under PBC, respectively as compared with P (P<0.05). Total chlorophyll contents in leaves of C. officinalis under P, PC and PBC significantly increased by 77.36%, 125.50% and 79.80%, respectively (P<0.05) as compared with PB. Physical-chemical characteristics and enzymatic activity of soil in different treatments were also assessed. The highest total N, total P, available N, available P and SOM (soil organic matter) occurred in PC, followed by PBC (P<0.05). C. officinalis rhizospheric soil dehydrogenase (DHA) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in PB were lower than those of other treatments (P<0.05). The values of ACE (abundance-based coverage estimators) and Chao 1 indices for rhizospheric bacteria were the highest under PC followed by PBC, P, PB and CK (P<0.05). However, the Shannon index for bacteria was the highest under PC and PBC, followed by P, PB and CK (P<0.05). In terms of soil microbial community composition, Proteiniphilum, Immundisolibacteraceae and Solimonadaceae were relatively more abundant under PC and PBC. Relative abundances of Pseudallescheria, Ochroconis, Fusarium, Sarocladium, Podospora, Apodus, Pyrenochaetopsis and Schizothecium under PC and PBC were higher, while relative abundances of Gliomastix, Aspergillus and Alternaria were lower under PC and PBC. As per the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis, application of organic compost significantly promoted soil N and P contents, shoot length, root vitality, chlorophyll ratio, total chlorophyll, abundance and diversity of rhizospheric soil microbial community in C. officinalis. A high pH value and lower soil N and P contents induced by biochar, altered C. officinalis rhizospheric soil microbial community composition, which might have restrained its phytoremediation efficiency. The results suggest that organic compost-assisted C. officinalis phytoremediation for crude-oil contaminated soil was highly effective in the Loess Plateau, China.|
Xu, Chunsheng; Li, Chuanfu; Zhu, Yifang; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Junping; Xu, Chunsheng; Li, Chuanfu; Wu, Hongli; Zhu, Yifang; Liu, Junping; Xu, Chunsheng; Li, Chuanfu; Wu, Hongli; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Linying; Hu, Sheng; Zhu, Senhua; Zhang, Qingping; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaochu
|Objective. We sought to use the regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach as an index in the resting-state functional MRI to investigate the gender differences of spontaneous brain activity within cerebral cortex and resting-state networks (RSNs) in young adult healthy volunteers. Methods. One hundred and twelve healthy volunteers (56 males, 56 females) participated in the resting-state fMRI scan. The ReHo mappings in the cerebral cortex and twelve RSNs of the male and female groups were compared. Results. We found statistically significant gender differences in the primary visual network (PVN) (P < 0.004, with Bonferroni correction) and left attention network (LAtN), default mode network (DMN), sensorimotor network (SMN), executive network (EN), and dorsal medial prefrontal network (DMPFC) as well (P < 0.05, uncorrected). The male group showed higher ReHo in the left precuneus, while the female group showed higher ReHo in the right middle cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. Conclusions. Our results suggested that men and women had regional specific differences during the resting-state. The findings may improve our understanding of the gender differences in behavior and cognition from the perspective of resting-state brain function.|
Phiwpan, Krung; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Tanyu; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhou, Xuyu; Phiwpan, Krung; Hu, Tanyu; Boruah, Bhargavi M.
|MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) plays significant role in various physiological processes involving both innate and adaptive immunity. miR-155 expression level changes dynamically during various immune responses. However, current approaches for miR-155 detection at the RNA level do not precisely reflect the real-time activity. Herein, we generated a transgenic mouse line (R26-DTR-155T) for determination of miR-155-5p activity in vivo by inserting miR-155-5p target sequence downstream of a reporter transgene comprising Diphtheria Toxin Receptor and TagBlue fluorescence protein. Using this approach, R26-DTR-155T mice were able to measure variation in levels of miR-155-5p activity in specific cell types of interest. The DTR expression levels were inversely correlated with the endogenous miR-155 expression pattern as detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Our data demonstrate a novel transgenic mouse line which could be useful for tracing miR-155-5p activity in specific cell types through measurement of miR-155-5p activity at single cell level.|