分类： 计算机科学 >> 计算机科学的集成理论 提交时间： 2022-11-25 合作期刊: 《数据智能（英文）》
摘要：Knowledge bases (KBs) are often greatly incomplete, necessitating a demand for KB completion. Although XLORE is an English-Chinese bilingual knowledge graph, there are only 423,974 cross-lingual links between English instances and Chinese instances. We present XLORE2, an extension of the XLORE that is built automatically from Wikipedia, Baidu Baike and Hudong Baike. We add more facts by making cross-lingual knowledge linking, cross-lingual property matching and fine-grained type inference. We also design an entity linking system to demonstrate the effectiveness and broad coverage of XLORE2.
分类： 核科学技术 >> 粒子加速器 提交时间： 2021-12-31 合作期刊: 《Nuclear Science and Techniques》
摘要： Collinear laser spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the nuclear spins, electromagnetic moments, and charge radii of exotic nuclei. To study the nuclear properties of unstable nuclei at the Beijing Radioactive Ion#2;beam Facility (BRIF) and the future High Intensity Heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF), we developed a collinear laser spectroscopy apparatus integrated with an offline laser ablation ion source and a laser system. The overall performance of this state-of-the-art technique was evaluated and the system was commissioned using a bunched stable ion beam. The high-resolution optical spectra for the 4s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2 (D2) ionic transition of 40,42,44,48Ca isotopes were successfully measured. The extracted isotope shifts relative to 40Ca showed excellent agreement with the literature values. This system is now ready for use at radioactive ion beam facilities such as the BRIF and paves the way for the further development of higher-sensitivity collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy techniques.
分类： 物理学 >> 凝聚态:结构、力学和热性能 提交时间： 2017-03-26
摘要：Thermal aging effects on surface of 2.5 MeV Fe ion irradiated Fe-0.6%Cu alloy were investigated using positron annihilation techniques. The samples were irradiated at 573 K to a dose of 0.1 dpa. Their thermal aging was performed at 573 K for 5, 50, and 100 h. From the results of Doppler broadening measurement, an obvious trough could be seen in near surface region from the S parameters and inflection point form at S-W curves. This indicates changes in the annihilation mechanism of positrons in surface region after thermal aging. Coincident Doppler broadening indicates that the density of Cu precipitates in the thermal aged samples decreased, due to recovery of the vacancies. Keywords Fe-Cu alloy; Positron annihilation; Irradiation; Thermal aging
分类： 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间： 2016-08-30
摘要：WIMPs are a well-motivated galactic dark matter candidate. Liquid argon (LAr) is an attractive target for the direct detection of WIMPs. The LAr prototype detector is designed to study the technology and property of LAr detector. The prototype detector have an active volume containing 0.65 kg of liquid argon. The liquid nitrogen(LN) cooling system allows the temperature of liquid argon to be maintained at the boiling point (87.8 K) with fluctuations less than 0.1 K. The prototype was calibrated with a Na22 source, with the light yield 1.591�.019 p.e./keV for the 511 keV gamma rays using the domestic-made argon purification system.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 神经科学 提交时间： 2016-06-06
摘要：Previous studies have shown that the Hippo pathway effector yes-associated protein (YAP) plays an important role in maintaining stem cell proliferation. However, the precise molecular mechanism of YAP in regulating murine embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) remains largely unknown. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) treatment inhibited the proliferation of mouse embryonic NSCs, that YAP was critical for mouse NSC proliferation, and that BMP2 treatment-induced inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation was abrogated by YAP knockdown, indicating that the YAP protein mediates the inhibitory effect of BMP2 signaling. Additionally, we found that BMP2 treatment reduced YAP nuclear translocation, YAP-TEAD interaction, and YAP-mediated transactivation. BMP2 treatment inhibited YAP/TEAD-mediated Cyclin D1 (ccnd1) expression, and knockdown of ccnd1 abrogated the BMP2-mediated inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation. Mechanistically, we found that Smad1/4, effectors of BMP2 signaling, competed with YAP for the interaction with TAED1 and inhibited YAP's cotranscriptional activity. Our data reveal mechanistic cross talk between BMP2 signaling and the Hippo-YAP pathway in murine NSC proliferation, which may be exploited as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 细胞生物学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：The piRNA machinery is known for its role in mediating epigenetic silencing of transposons. Recent studies suggest that this function also involves piRNA-guided cleavage of transposon-derived transcripts. As many piRNAs also appear to have the capacity to target diverse mRNAs, this raises the intriguing possibility that piRNAs may act extensively as siRNAs to degrade specific mRNAs. To directly test this hypothesis, we compared mouse PIWI (MIWI)-associated piRNAs with experimentally identified cleaved mRNA fragments from mouse testes, and observed cleavage sites that predominantly occur at position 10 from the 5' end of putative targeting piRNAs. We also noted strong biases for U and A residues at nucleotide positions 1 and 10, respectively, in both piRNAs and mRNA fragments, features that resemble the pattern of piRNA amplification by the 'ping-pong' cycle. Through mapping of MIWI-RNA interactions by CLIP-seq and gene expression profiling, we found that many potential piRNA-targeted mRNAs directly interact with MIWI and show elevated expression levels in the testes of Miwi catalytic mutant mice. Reporter-based assays further revealed the importance of base pairing between piRNAs and mRNA targets and the requirement for both the slicer activity and piRNA-loading ability of MIWI in piRNA-mediated target repression. Importantly, we demonstrated that proper turnover of certain key piRNA targets is essential for sperm formation. Together, these findings reveal the siRNA-like function of the piRNA machinery in mouse testes and its central requirement for male germ cell development and maturation.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 生物物理、生物化学与分子生物学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：The lipid droplet (LD) is a cellular organelle that stores neutral lipids in cells and has been linked with metabolic disorders. Caenorhabditis elegans has many characteristics which make it an excellent animal model for studying LDs. However, unlike in mammalian cells, no LD structure-like/resident proteins have been identified in C. elegans, which has limited the utility of this model for the study of lipid storage and metabolism. Herein based on three lines of evidence, we identified that MDT-28 and DHS-3 previously identified in C. elegans LD proteome were two LD structure-like/resident proteins. First, MDT-28 and DHS-3 were found to be the two most abundant LD proteins in the worm. Second, the proteins were specifically localized to LDs and we identified the domains responsible for this targeting in both proteins. Third and most importantly, the depletion of MDT-28 induced LD clustering while DHS-3 deletion reduced triacylglycerol content (TAG). We further characterized the proteins finding that MDT-28 was ubiquitously expressed in the intestine, muscle, hypodermis, and embryos, whereas DHS-3 was expressed mainly in intestinal cells. Together, these two LD structure-like/resident proteins provide a basis for future mechanistic studies into the dynamics and functions of LDs in C. elegans. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 神经科学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：The human LGN and SC consist of distinct layers, but their layer-specific response properties remain poorly understood. In this fMRI study, we characterized visual response properties of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) layers of the human LGN, as well as at different depths in the SC. Results show that fMRI is capable of resolving layer-specific signals from the LGN and SC. Compared to the P layers of the LGN, the M layers preferred higher temporal frequency, lower spatial frequency stimuli, and their responses saturated at lower contrast. Furthermore, the M layers are colorblind while the P layers showed robust response to both chromatic and achromatic stimuli. Visual responses in the SC were strongest in the superficial voxels, which showed similar spatiotemporal and contrast response properties as the M layers of the LGN, but were sensitive to color and responded strongly to isoluminant color stimulus. Thus, the non-invasive fMRI measures show that the M and P layers of human LGN have similar response properties as that observed in non-human primates and the superficial layers of the human SC prefer transient inputs but are not colorblind. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 细胞生物学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：The Hippo signaling pathway restricts organ size by inactivating the Yorkie (Yki)/Yes-associated protein (YAP) family proteins. The oncogenic Yki/YAP transcriptional coactivator family promotes tissue growth by activating target gene transcription, but the regulation of Yki/YAP activation remains elusive. In mammalian cells, we identified Brg1, a major subunit of chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF family proteins, which interacts with YAP. This finding led us to investigate the in vivo functional interaction of Yki and Brahma (Brm), the Drosophila homolog of Brg1. We found that Brm functions at the downstream of Hippo pathway and interacts with Yki and Scalloped (Sd) to promotes Yki-dependent transcription and tissue growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Brm is required for the Crumbs (Crb) dysregulation-induced Yki activation. Interestingly, we also found that crb is a downstream target of Yki-Brm complex. Brm physically binds to the promoter of crb and regulates its transcription through Yki. Together, we showed that Brm functions as a critical regulator of Hippo signaling during tissue growth and plays an important role in the feedback loop between Crb and Yki. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：PURPOSE. This study investigated a novel motion-on-color paradigm to functionally isolate the magnocellular pathway and evaluate its diagnostic value in preperimetric glaucoma patients. METHODS. Thirty patients with preperimetric primary open-angle glaucoma and 30 controls participated in this study. They were tested in both the foveal and peripheral locations. Contrast sensitivity was assessed for the direction discrimination of a moving luminance-modulated grating presented on top of a red/green isoluminant grating. The moving test grating was designed to target the magnocellular pathway, while the background red/green isoluminant grating was designed to saturate the parvocellular pathway. The luminance-modulated grating was presented at spatial frequency of 0.5 cyc/deg, moving horizontally at four temporal frequencies (3 Hz, 8 Hz, 15 Hz, 25 Hz). Participants were asked to indicate the direction of motion for the luminance grating. As a comparison condition, frequency-doubling stimuli were also presented in the periphery and participants were asked to detect the occurrence of the frequency-doubled pattern. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed with temporal frequency modulations as within-subject factor and group as between-subject factor, while contrast sensitivity was the dependent variable. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to characterize diagnostic performance of the new procedure in comparison with the frequency-doubling tests for preperimetric glaucoma. RESULTS. The contrast sensitivity function in both the fovea and the periphery showed an inverted "V" shape with highest sensitivity in the intermediate temporal frequencies, consistent with physiological properties of the magnocellular pathway. At the fovea, compared to the control group, the sensitivity for the glaucoma patients was slightly but not significantly reduced (P > 0.05), and there was no significant interaction between groups and temporal frequency (P > 0.05). In the periphery, patients' sensitivity was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than that of normal participants, especially in high temporal frequencies, as supported by a statistically significant interaction between groups and temporal frequency (P < 0.001). The areas under ROC curves (AUROC) obtained for the motion-on-color paradigm in the periphery were 0.957 (25 Hz), 0.870 (15 Hz), 0.758 (8 Hz), and 0.561 (3 Hz) and were 0.761 for the traditional frequency-doubling test. CONCLUSIONS. The motion-on-color paradigm revealed a loss of contrast sensitivity in the peripheral visual field in preperimetric glaucoma. When applied with stimuli at high temporal frequency, the new paradigm had higher diagnostic sensitivity and specificity than the traditional frequency-doubling test. The findings also support the viewpoint that selective evaluation of magnocellular pathway function could facilitate the earlier detection of functional defects in glaucoma before visual field defects by standard perimetry.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间： 2016-05-12
摘要：Novelty seeking (NS) is a personality trait reflecting excitement in response to novel stimuli. High NS is usually a predictor of risky behaviour such as drug abuse. However, the relationships between NS and risk-related cognitive processes, including individual risk preference and the brain activation associated with risk prediction, remain elusive. In this fMRI study, participants completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire to measure NS and performed a probabilistic decision making task. Using a mathematical model, we estimated individual risk preference. Brain regions associated with risk prediction were determined via fMRI. The NS score showed a positive correlation with risk preference and a negative correlation with the activation elicited by risk prediction in the right posterior insula (r-PI), left anterior insula (l-AI), right striatum (r-striatum) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Within these brain regions, only the activation associated with risk prediction in the r-PI showed a correlation with NS after controlling for the effect of risk preference. Resting-state functional connectivity between the r-PI and r-striatum/l-AI was negatively correlated with NS. Our results suggest that high NS may be associated with less aversion to risk and that the r-PI plays an important role in relating risk prediction to NS.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 细胞生物学 提交时间： 2016-05-11
摘要：Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise two functionally distinct subsets: plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and myeloid DCs (mDCs). pDCs are specialized in rapid and massive secretion of type I interferon (IFN-I) in response to nucleic acids through Toll like receptor (TLR)-7 or TLR-9. In this report, we characterized a CD56(+) DC population that express typical pDC markers including CD123 and BDCA2 but produce much less IFN-I comparing with pDCs. In addition, CD56(+) DCs cluster together with mDCs but not pDCs by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Accordingly, CD56(+) DCs functionally resemble mDCs by producing IL-12 upon TLR4 stimulation and priming naive T cells without prior activation. These data suggest that the CD56(+) DCs represent a novel mDC subset mixed with some pDC features. A CD4(+)CD56(+) hematological malignancy was classified as blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) due to its expression of characteristic molecules of pDCs. However, we demonstrated that BPDCN is closer to CD56(+) DCs than pDCs by global gene-expression profiling. Thus, we propose that the CD4(+)CD56(+) neoplasm may be a tumor counterpart of CD56(+) mDCs but not pDCs.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间： 2016-05-11
摘要：CD24 is overexpressed in nearly 70% human cancers, whereas TP53 is the most frequently mutated tumour-suppressor gene that functions in a context-dependent manner. Here we show that both targeted mutation and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing of CD24 retard the growth, progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. CD24 competitively inhibits ARF binding to NPM, resulting in decreased ARF, increase MDM2 and decrease levels of p53 and the p53 target p21/CDKN1A. CD24 silencing prevents functional inactivation of p53 by both somatic mutation and viral oncogenes, including the SV40 large T antigen and human papilloma virus 16 E6-antigen. In support of the functional interaction between CD24 and p53, in silico analyses reveal that TP53 mutates at a higher rate among glioma and prostate cancer samples with higher CD24 mRNA levels. These data provide a general mechanism for functional inactivation of ARF and reveal an important cellular context for genetic and viral inactivation of TP53.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间： 2016-05-05
摘要：Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 提交时间： 2016-05-05
摘要：Nicotine addiction is associated with risky behaviors and abnormalities in local brain areas related to risky decision-making such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), anterior insula (AI), and thalamus. Although these brain abnormalities are anatomically separated, they may in fact belong to one neural network. However, it is unclear whether circuit-level abnormalities lead to risky decision-making in smokers. In the current study, we used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) to study how connectivity between the dACC, insula, and thalamus influence risky decision-making in nicotine addicts. We found that an increase in risky decision-making was associated with stronger nicotine dependence and stronger RSFC of the dACC-rAI (right AI), the dACC-thalamus, the dACC-lAI (left AI), and the rAI-lAI, but that risky decision-making was not associated with risk level-related activation. Furthermore, the severity of nicotine dependence positively correlated with RSFC of the dACC-thalamus but was not associated with risk level-related activation. Importantly, the dACC-thalamus coupling fully mediated the effect of nicotine-dependent severity on risky decision-making. These results suggest that circuit-level connectivity may be a critical neural link between risky decision-making and severity of nicotine dependence in smokers.
分类： 生物学 >> 生物物理学 >> 生物物理、生物化学与分子生物学 提交时间： 2016-05-05
摘要：Female fig wasps differ phenotypically from conspecific males to the extent that often they cannot be associated with one another. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the genome and transcriptomes of one such fig wasp, Ceratosolensolmsi, generated five expression modules, which were flagged as blue, turquoise, brown, green and yellow. These involved two female-biased expression modules and three pupa-biased expression modules, respectively. Gene ontologies indicated three functional enrichment gene sets in modules turquoise and yellow. Two functional enrichment gene sets that participate in cell cycle or have nucleotide binding activityclustered in turquoise module. The functionally enriched gene set in yellow module played roles in cell differentiation, especially in neuron morphogenesis.