摘要：In this paper a three component model-based decomposition with adaptive selection of unitary transformations for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR) data processing is proposed. Singh et al implemented two unitary transformations on the coherency matrix to minimize the power of cross-polarization, and as a result the T23element of the coherency matrix becomes zero. Another two unitary transformations are proposed by us to carry out on the coherency matrix also to minimize the power of crosspolarization, and the T13element of the coherency matrix becomes zero. Here, we first implement Singh's two unitary transformations and the proposed two unitary transformations on the coherency matrix separately. Then we select the one which leads to the smaller T33. At last, we carry out the three component model-based decomposition proposed by Freeman and Durden based on the obtained coherency matrix. The smaller T33is obtained, the better the over-estimation of volume scattering in model-based decomposition can be suppressed. The RADARSAT-2 POLSAR data of San Francisco area is used to validate the improvement of the proposed method over the three component decomposition only with Singh's two unitary transformations.
摘要：A novel X-band unit cell structure with improved bandwidth performance for single-layer microstrip reflectarray antenna is proposed. The new element structure consists of two circular rings, each with a pair of gaps, and two phase-delay lines are attached to the outer ring to provide the required phase shift. A 9� center-fed reflectarray antenna operating at 10 GHz is designed to validate the broadband performance of the proposed unit cell. Simulated results show 20% 1-dB gain bandwidth and 38.5% 3-dB gain bandwidth. The maximum gain at 10 GHz is 20.1 dB, which is equivalent to 40 % efficiency.
摘要：In PolSAR data processing, deorientation operation is often necessary. The existing deorientation method uniformly deorients all the sub-scatterers of a resolution cell with one orientation angle. For high entropy situation, the sub-scatterers have diverse OAs, and the effect of the existing method is unsatisfactory. A novel deorientation method is proposed to well treat the high entropy situation. Cloude's eigen-decomposition to the coherency matrix is first carried out. The three eigenvectors are then separately deoriented with their own orientation angles. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is suitable for extraction of urban regions, especially for extraction of oriented urban regions. �VDE VERLAG GMBH �Berlin �Offenbach.
摘要：Man-made buildings detection is important in land use supervision and land control applications. Generally, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data are processed to detect buildings well. But for some buildings which are not aligned with the radar track, these buildings are usually incorrectly recognized as forest, because the oriented buildings produce additional cross-polarization. Polarimetric interferometric SAR (PolINSAR) acquires two measurements with a spatial baseline or a temporal baseline. For the PolINSAR with a temporal baseline i.e., the repeat pass PolInSAR, the two polarimetric measurements are sensitive to targets' temporal variations during the time. The buildings, regardless of the orientations, have high coherence, while some natural targets have low coherence. A novel parameter is proposed here, which represents the mean PolINSAR coherence and can be utilized to distinguish between buildings and some natural targets. The parameter is based on the coherence optimization theory of Cloude and Papathanassiou, and is the mean of the three optimal coherences with three pseudo-probabilities. Based on this new parameter and the SPAN, a method to detect buildings is further proposed. The excellent performance of the proposed method on buildings extraction is demonstrated by processing German Aerospace Center (DLR) L-band E-SAR repeat pass PolINSAR data of Oberpfaffenhofen area.
摘要：In this paper, a novel X-band broadband single-layer unit cell with attached phase-delay lines for reflectarray antennas is proposed to surmount the limitation of the reflectarray bandwidth. The unit cell is composed of three circular rings, each with a pair of gaps which are mutually placed orthogonally, and two identical circular phase-delay lines are attached to the outer ring to provide the required reflection phase. After the simulation for the unit cell carried out, a large reflecting phase range of about 600�and almost linear phase curve are achieved at the center frequency of 10 GHz. Parallel phase curves of different frequencies ranging from 9 GHz to 12 GHz are also obtained. To validate the broadband performance of the proposed unit cell, a 9 �9 center-fed reflectarray antenna operating at X band is designed and simulated. Simulation results show that the designed antenna has 34% 1-dB gain bandwidth, which demonstrates that an obvious improvement on the bandwidth has been achieved compared to the previous works. Besides, the cross-polarization level is decreased to -40 dB by a mirror symmetric element arrangement.
摘要：Cloude-Pottier incoherent target decomposition (ICTD) and Touzi ICTD has been widely applied as a popular approach to interpret the scattering characteristics of a target in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data processing. However, they have a common drawback, i.e. proliferation of parameters (PoP) is unavoidable. Paladini et al. solved this problem by developing an orientation-invariant ICTD based on the coherency matrix under circular polarization basis. As an alternative to Paladini decomposition, we proposed a novel ICTD based on the frequently used coherency matrix under linear polarization basis. The proposed method can also avoid the problem of PoP, and avoid the ambiguity of alpha angle of Paladini decomposition as well. Real PolSAR data is processed to validate the proposed decomposition.
摘要：The model-based decomposition that originated from Freeman-Durden three-component decomposition (FDD) has been widely applied in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data processing for its clear physical interpretation and easy implementation. Numerous improvements have been proposed to settle the twomain drawbacks of FDD, i.e., the incomplete utilization of the polarimetric information in the coherency matrix and the negative scattering power problem. Recently, Cui et al. proposed a complete model-based three-component decomposition which successfully settled the two aforementioned drawbacks. However, the three scattering components' powers are not totally derived using scattering models, and the remaining coherency matrix (RCM) obtained by subtracting the volume scattering component from the coherency matrix is not consistent with the models of surface and double-bounce scattering components. As an extension of Cui's method, this letter is dedicated to develop a novel method to discriminate the surface and double-bounce scattering components both using scattering models. With the orientation angle (OA) variation and helix angle (HA) variation compensated for the RCM, the RCM is automatically consistent with the models of surface and double-scattering components. The OA variation and HA variation compensation for the RCMis done by unitary transformations of the eigenvectors of the RCM. The powers of surface and double-bounce scattering components are positive. The effectiveness of the proposedmethod is demonstrated by processing the real PolSAR data.
摘要：A fast offset estimation approach for interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) image pair subpixel registration is proposed for cases of relatively gentle topography and/or short baseline. A coarse-to-fine registration strategy is taken. The pixel-level offset is estimated in the coarse registration step by a fast feature-based estimation, which uses the speeded up robust feature operator and fast least trimmed squares (Fast-LTS) estimator to accelerate the feature extraction and parameter estimation. A fine registration is performed subsequently. The conventional normalized cross-correlation algorithm (NCCA) searches for the optimal subpixel offset by oversampling either the coarse cross correlation or the InSAR image patch pair. The offset estimation accuracy is restricted by the oversampling rate, and the computational burden is heavy when high accuracy is demanded. In this letter, we transform the oversampling and correlation searching process of NCCA into a nonlinear optimization problem, which takes the maximization of the coherent cross correlation as the objective function; by solving it, the subpixel offset can be fast and exactly obtained without any image oversampling. The final registration parameters are inverted by Fast-LTS fitting of a series of subpixel tie point correspondences which can be constructed after applying the approach to several image patch pairs. RadarSat-2 data are used to test the approach, and the results show that it performs very well not only on the speed but also on the accuracy. �2006 IEEE.
摘要：A novel image registration scheme is devised in view of the weak affine transformation, which is a kind of similarity transformation with anisotropic scales or affine transformation without shearing. Two robust algorithms are proposed to retrieve the registration parameters from the error-prone initial correspondences based on the fast least trimmed squares (Fast-LTS) and the random sample consensus (RANSAC). In terms of several criteria, the algorithms are evaluated on three carefully selected datasets from different sensors and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme and algorithms perform robustly and accurately. Our findings also indicate that the Fast-LTS-based algorithm is more stable and appropriate for image registration than the RANSAC-based algorithm although the speed is slower. �2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
摘要：A rigorous epipolar geometry modeling for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is developed from a concise imaging model proposed in the paper. The imaging model and epipolar model not only geometrically unify the SAR imaging and the optical camera imaging, but also motivate a 3D target reconstruction which is theoretically validated to be consistent with the radargrammetry and experimentally demonstrated to be accurate. �2008-2012 IEEE.
摘要：Huynen decomposition prefers the world of basic symmetry and regularity (SR) in which we live. However, this preference restricts its applicability to ideal SR scatterer only. As for the complex non-symmetric (NS) and irregular (IR) scatterers such as forest and building, Huynen decomposition fails to analyze their scattering. The canonical Huynen dichotomy is devised to extend Huynen decomposition to the preferences for IR and NS. From the physical realizability conditions of polarimetric scattering description, two other dichotomies of polarimetric radar target are developed, which prefer scattering IR, and NS, respectively, and provide two competent supplements to Huynen decomposition. The canonical Huynen dichotomy is the combination of the two dichotomies and Huynen decomposition. In virtue of an Adaptive selection, the canonical Huynen dichotomy is used in target extraction, and the experiments on AIRSAR San Francisco data demonstrate its high efficiency and excellent discrimination of radar targets. �2015 SPIE.
摘要：In computer vision, optical camera is often used as the eyes of computer. If we replace camera with synthetic aperture radar (SAR), we will then enter a microwave vision of the world. This paper gives a comparison of SAR imaging and camera imaging from the viewpoint of epipolar geometry. The imaging model and epipolar geometry of the two sensors are analyzed in detail. Their difference is illustrated, and their unification is particularly demonstrated. We hope these may benefit researchers in field of computer vision or SAR image processing to construct a computer SAR vision, which is dedicated to compensate and improve human vision by electromagnetically perceiving and understanding the images.
摘要：A scattering degree of preference parameter is developed from Huynen canonical dichotomy which displays superior classification ability over the scattering similarity parameter. A scattering hue parameter is then proposed and demonstrated to be of superiority compared with scattering alpha on description of scattering mechanism. A scattering saturation parameter is further defined and shows comparable to scattering entropy on description of scattering randomness. A Huynen dichotomy-based PolSAR data visualization scheme is finally obtained which not only works more efficient but also makes the results look better than that from H/alpha. �2014 VDE VERLAG GMBH.
摘要：An investigation to the appropriate feature for SAR image registration is conducted. The commonly-used features such as tie points, Harris corner, the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), and the speeded up robust feature (SURF) are comprehensively evaluated in terms of several criteria such as the geometrical invariance of feature, the extraction speed, the localization accuracy, the geometrical invariance of descriptor, the matching speed, the robustness to decorrelation, and the flexibility to image speckling. It is shown that SURF outperforms others. It is particularly indicated that SURF has good flexibility to image speckling because the Fast-Hessian detector of SURF has a potential relation with the refined Lee filter. It is recommended to perform SURF on the oversampled image with unaltered sampling step so as to improve the subpixel registration accuracy and speckle immunity. Thus SURF is more appropriate and competent for general SAR image registration. �2012 SPIE.
摘要：Scattering similarity was first proposed by Yang et al. to measure the similarity between two single scatterers. It was extended by Chen et al. to measure the similarity between a mixed scatterer and a single scatterer. This letter develops a random similarity parameter to further measure the similarity between two mixed scatterers. The parameter not only covers Yang's and Chen's similarities by providing a general scattering similarity measurement, but also is useful for scattering randomness description by enabling a fast alternative and a competent complementary to the entropy parameter. A novel model-based characterization scheme of mixed scatterer is then proposed by parallel combining the random similarities between the mixed scatterer and three canonical mixed volume scatterers. By further fusing with the SPAN, the scheme can characterize both the texture and the scattering information regarding a target. Comparative experiment with Chen's approach on L-band ESAR Oberpfaffenhofen data demonstrates its excellent discrimination of radar targets. �2004-2012 IEEE.
摘要：Huynen decomposition (HD) as the first formalized target decomposition has not been widely accepted. The preference for symmetry and regularity restricts not only its application but also its unification with other target dichotomies. The nonuniqueness issue then arises because we may have different dichotomies of radar targets, but we have no idea on how to select them. In this paper, a unified Huynen dichotomy is developed by extending HD for a full preference for symmetry and regularity, nonsymmetry, irregularity, and their couplings. It covers all of the existing dichotomies and provides a unified selection mechanism for them. Scattering preference is identified as a main feature of target dichotomy, and its concise description is devised by relating each dichotomy to a canonical scattering. A scattering degree of preference (SDoP) parameter is defined to measure the preference of each dichotomy. In virtue of an adaptive combination and permutation of SDoPs, a scattering pyramid description of the mixed scattering is developed, which has better discrimination of target than entropy/alpha. An SDoP/alpha classification is further proposed by statistical modeling of the unified dichotomy, which is a competent alternative to entropy/alpha. The excellent performance of unified dichotomy makes us believe that the existing concerns on HD are well treated and the Huynen-Cloude controversy, in a sense, may be ended. �2015 IEEE.
摘要：This paper is dedicated to investigate the appropriate parameter retrieval algorithm for feature-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image registration. The widely-used random sample consensus (RANSAC) is observed to be instable for its inappropriate estimation strategy and loss function for SAR images. In order to enable a stable and robust registration for SAR, an extended fast least trimmed squares (EF-LTS) is proposed which conducts the registration by least squares fitting at least half of the correspondences to minimize the squared polynomial residuals instead of fitting the minimal sampling set to maximize the cardinality of the consensus set as RANSAC. Experiment on interferometric SAR image pair demonstrates that the proposed algorithm behaves very stably and the obtained registration is averagely better than that by RANSAC in terms of cross-correlation and spectral SNR. By this algorithm, a stable estimation for any kind of 2D polynomial warp model with high robustness and accuracy can be efficiently achieved. Thus EF-LTS is more appropriate for SAR image registration. �2012 SPIE.
摘要：In this work, we employ a novel basis matrix method, applied in conjunction with the singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm to achieve sub-wavelength resolution in the images derived by using phase conjugation (PC) scheme in the microwave imaging problem. Illuminative examples of different bar-code type of distributions are presented, together with the images recovered by using the proposed method.
摘要：In recent years, multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) radar has attracted much attention of many researchers and institutions. MIMO radar transmits multiple signals, and receives the backscattered signals reflected from the targets. In contrast with conventional phased array radar and SAR system, MIMO radar system has significant potential advantages for achieving higher system SNR, more accurate parameter estimation, or high resolution of radar image. In this paper, we propose a new MIMO SAR system based on Alamouti space-time coding scheme and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing linearly frequency modulated (OFDM-LFM) for obtaining higher system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and better range resolution of SAR image.
摘要：The authors propose a novel compressive sensing (CS)-based Dechirp-Keystone algorithm (DKA) for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) moving target imaging, which is called the CS-DKA. The DKA can focus on moving targets in range-Doppler domain efficiently through only keystone transform (KT), complex multiplication and Fourier transform (FT)/inverse Fourier transform (IFT) operations. It has been shown that the non-interpolation implementation of KT can be expressed by an orthonormal basis, and it is known that the complex multiplication and FT/IFT are linear and invertible; therefore, the Dechirp-Keystone operator (DKO) is also linear and invertible. In the proposed algorithm, the authors take the inverse of DKO (IDKO) rather than the exact SAR echo model to construct the representation basis in the CS frame owing to its high implementation efficiency. After that, a random transmitting/receiving scheme is considered, to implement the down-sampling operation, and then reconstruct the moving target image by solving a regularisation problem. Both simulated and real SAR data are processed to show that the CS-DKA with down-sampled data can focus the target as well as the conventional DKA does with full data, and at the same time can achieve much lower sidelobes.