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1. chinaXiv:201605.01732 [pdf]

Quantitative combination of natural anti-oxidants prevents metabolic syndrome by reducing oxidative stress

Gao, Mingjing; Zhao, Zhen; Lv, Pengyu; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Michael; Gao, Mingjing; Zhao, Zhen; Lv, Pengyu; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Michael; Li, YuFang; Zhao, Baolu; Zhang, Michael; Gao, Mingjing
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are present in the majority of people with the metabolic syndrome. Antioxidant therapy might be a useful strategy for type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. The combination of vitamin C (Vc) and vitamin E has synthetic scavenging effect on free radicals and inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation. However, there are few studies about how to define the best combination of more than three anti-oxidants as it is difficult or impossible to test the anti-oxidant effect of the combination of every concentration of each ingredient experimentally. Here we present a math model, which is based on the classical Hill equation to determine the best combination, called Fixed Dose Combination (FDC), of several natural anti-oxidants, including Vc, green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract proanthocyanidin (GSEP). Then we investigated the effects of FDC on oxidative stress, blood glucose and serum lipid levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats which serve as obesity model, and KK-ay mice as diabetic model. The level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the treated rats was studied and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining or Oil red slices of liver and adipose tissue in the rats were examined as well. FDC shows excellent antioxidant and anti-glycation activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation. FDC determined in this investigation can become a potential solution to reduce obesity, to improve insulin sensitivity and be beneficial for the treatment of fat and diabetic patients. It is the first time to use the math model to determine the best ratio of three anti-oxidants, which can save much more time and chemical materials than traditional experimental method. This quantitative method represents a potentially new and useful strategy to screen all possible combinations of many natural anti-oxidants, therefore may help develop novel therapeutics with the potential to ameliorate the worldwide metabolic abnormalities. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits11056Downloads1606 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01297 [pdf]

Asymmetric dimethylarginine exacerbates A beta-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in human cell and Caenorhabditis elegans models of Alzheimer disease

Luo, Yunfeng; Yue, Wenhui; Quan, Xin; Wang, Yue; Lu, Zhongbing; Zhao, Baolu
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Growing evidence suggests a strong association between cardiovascular risk factors and incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, has been identified as an independent cardiovascular risk factor and is also increased in plasma of patients with AD. However, whether ADMA is involved in the pathogenesis of AD is unknown. In this study, we found that ADMA content was increased in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans beta-amyloid (A beta) overexpression model, strain CL2006, and in human SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing the Swedish mutant form of human A beta precursor protein (APPsw). Moreover, ADMA treatment exacerbated A beta-induced paralysis and oxidative stress in CL2006 worms and further elevated oxidative stress and A beta secretion in APPsw cells. Knockdown of type 1 protein arginine N-methyltransferase to reduce ADMA production failed to show a protective effect against A beta toxicity, but resulted in more paralysis in CL2006 worms as well as increased oxidative stress and A beta secretion in APPsw cells. However, overexpression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) to promote ADMA degradation significantly attenuated oxidative stress and A beta secretion in APPsw cells. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that elevated ADMA contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. Our findings suggest that strategies to increase DDAH1 activity in neuronal cells may be a novel approach to attenuating AD development. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits1850Downloads1045 Comment 0

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