摘要： Proton computed tomography (CT) has a distinct practical significance in clinical applications. It eliminates 3–5% errors caused by the transformation of Hounsfield unit (HU) to relative stopping power (RSP) values when using X-ray CT for positioning and treatment planning systems (TPSs). Following the development of FLASH proton therapy, there are increased requirements for accurate and rapid positioning in TPSs. Thus, a new rapid proton CT imaging mode is proposed based on sparsely sampled projections. The proton beam was boosted to 350 MeV by a compact proton linear accelerator (linac). In this study, the comparisons of the proton scattering with the energy of 350 MeV and 230 MeV are conducted based on GEANT4 simulations. As the sparsely sampled information associated with beam acquisitions at 12 angles is not enough for reconstruction, X-ray CT is used as a prior image. The RSP map generated by converting the X-ray CT was constructed based on Monte Carlo simulations. Considering the estimation of the most likely path (MLP), the prior image-constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm is used to reconstruct images from two different phantoms using sparse proton projections of 350 MeV parallel proton beam. The results show that it is feasible to realize the proton image reconstruction with the rapid proton CT imaging proposed in this paper. It can produce RSP maps with much higher accuracy for TPSs and fast positioning to achieve ultra-fast imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in clinical proton therapy applications.