摘要：Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are heterogeneous populations and their phenotypes are unstable. A number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms contribute to CSC phenotypic variation. The existence of various CSC subpopulations which would lead to a rapid relapse after primary treatments might pose a problem for CSC targeted therapeutics. In order to develop more effective approaches to cancer therapeutics, more CSC-related surface markers or targeting molecules, as well as some novel targeting strategies should be explored. This review summarized the origin and performance of heterogeneity in CSCs and discussed their therapeutic implications. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
摘要：The signal transduction pathway initiated by vascular endothelial growth factor-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-VEGFR2) plays an important role in the angiogenesis of tumors. The effective antagonists of VEGFR2 would behave as potent drugs for the treatment of malignant cancers. In our study, specific binding peptides with high affinity to VEGFR2 were obtained through bacterial display technology. Conserved motif (FF/YEXWGVK) among those peptide sequences was discovered. One of the selected peptides, VRBP1 (YDGNSFYEMWGVKPASES) was identified by screening the biased bacterial peptide library and its physiochemical feature was further characterized. The results of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay indicated that the dissociation constant (K-D) value of VRBP1 was 228.3 nM and this peptide competed with VEGF binding to VEGFR2. Particles conjugated with VRBP1 could recognize the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) which express VEGFR2 on the surface. Further therapeutic effect of VRBP1 was examined by in vivo experiments. VRBP1 could result in a significant decrease in tumor size of H460 xenografts. The results from the immunohistochemical assay showed that CD31 positive signals in VRBP1-treated group were fewer than those in the control ones. These data highlighted the potential of VEGFR2-binding peptides as effective molecules for cancer diagnosis and therapy.