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1. chinaXiv:202201.00022 [pdf]

Mass balance of saline lakes considering inflow loads of rivers and groundwater: the case of Lake Issyk- Kul, Central Asia

Kei SAITOH; Rysbek SATYLKANOV; Kenji OKUBO
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

This study aimed to elucidate the influence of inflow water on the salinity concentration process of a saline lake and the mass balance of Lake Issyk-Kul, a tectonic saltwater lake in Kyrgyzstan. Based on the survey results and meteorological data from 2012 to 2015, we analyzed the dissolved chemical composition loads due to water inflow. Then, we discussed the relationship between the increase in salinity and water inflow into the lake. Through the water quality analysis data, we used the tank model to estimate the river inflow and analyze the loads by the L-Q curve. The groundwater loads were then estimated from the average annual increase in salinity of the lake over a period of 30 a. The results suggest that Lake Issyk-Kul was temporarily freshened between about AD 1500 and 1800 when an outflowing river existed, and thereafter, it became a closed lake in AD 1800 and continued to remain a saline lake until present. The chemical components that cause salinization are supplied from the rivers and groundwater in the catchment area, and when they flow into the lake, Ca2+, HCO3? and Mg2+ precipitate as CaCO3 and MgCO3. These compounds were confirmed to have been left on the lakeshore as evaporite. The model analysis showed that 1.67 mg/L of Ca2+ and Mg2+ supplied from rivers and groundwater are precipitated as evaporite and in other forms per year. On the other hand, salinity continues to remain in the lake water at a rate of 27.5 mg/L per year. These are the main causes of increased salinity in Lake Issyk-Kul. Since Na+ and Cl– are considered to be derived from geothermal water, they will continue to flow in regardless of the effects of human activities. Therefore, as long as these components are accumulated in Lake Issyk-Kul as a closed lake, the salinity will continue to increase in the future.

submitted time 2021-12-30 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits6752Downloads229 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202110.00019 [pdf]

Effects of different ridge-furrow mulching systems on yield and water use efficiency of summer maize in the Loess Plateau of China

CHEN Pengpeng; GU Xiaobo; LI Yuannong; QIAO Linran; LI Yupeng; FANG Heng; YIN Minhua; ZHOU Changming
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Ridge-furrow film mulching has been proven to be an effective water-saving and yield-improving planting pattern in arid and semi-arid regions. Drought is the main factor limiting the local agricultural production in the Loess Plateau of China. In this study, we tried to select a suitable ridge-furrow mulching system to improve this situation. A two-year field experiment of summer maize (Zea mays L.) during the growing seasons of 2017 and 2018 was conducted to systematically analyze the effects of flat planting with no film mulching (CK), ridge-furrow with ridges mulching and furrows bare (RFM), and double ridges and furrows full mulching (DRFFM) on soil temperature, soil water storage (SWS), root growth, aboveground dry matter, water use efficiency (WUE), and grain yield. Both RFM and DRFFM significantly increased soil temperature in ridges, while soil temperature in furrows for RFM and DRFFM was similar to that for CK. The largest SWS was observed in DRFFM, followed by RFM and CK, with significant differences among them. SWS was lower in ridges than in furrows for RFM. DRFFM treatment kept soil water in ridges, resulting in higher SWS in ridges than in furrows after a period of no water input. Across the two growing seasons, compared with CK, RFM increased root mass by 10.2% and 19.3% at the jointing and filling stages, respectively, and DRFFM increased root mass by 7.9% at the jointing stage but decreased root mass by 6.0% at the filling stage. Over the two growing seasons, root length at the jointing and filling stages was respectively increased by 75.4% and 58.7% in DRFFM, and 20.6% and 30.2% in RFM. Relative to the jointing stage, the increased proportions of root mass and length at the filling stage were respectively 42.8% and 94.9% in DRFFM, 63.2% and 115.1% in CK, and 76.7% and 132.1% in RFM, over the two growing seasons, showing that DRFFM slowed down root growth while RFM promoted root growth at the later growth stages. DRFFM treatment increased root mass and root length in ridges and decreased them in 0–30 cm soil layer, while RFM increased them in 0–30 cm soil layer. Compared with CK, DRFFM decreased aboveground dry matter while RFM increased it. Evapotranspiration was reduced by 9.8% and 7.1% in DRFFM and RFM, respectively, across the two growing seasons. Grain yield was decreased by 14.3% in DRFFM and increased by 13.6% in RFM compared with CK over the two growing seasons. WUE in CK was non-significantly 6.8% higher than that in DRFFM and significantly 22.5% lower than that in RFM across the two growing seasons. Thus, RFM planting pattern is recommended as a viable water-saving option for summer maize in the Loess Plateau of China.

submitted time 2021-10-11 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits7660Downloads403 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202106.00009 [pdf]

Complex-valued Deng Entropy

Lipeng Pan; Yong Deng
Subjects: Computer Science >> Other Disciplines of Computer Science

Complex evidence theory has been applied to several fields due to its advantages in modeling and processing uncertain information. However,to measure the uncertainty of the complex mass function is still an open issue. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a complex-valued Deng entropy. The complex-valued Deng entropy can effectively measure the uncertainty of the mass function in the complex-valued framework. Meanwhile, the complex-valued Deng entropy is a generalization of the Deng entropy and Shannon entropy. That is, the complex-valued Deng entropy can degenerate to classical Deng entropy when the complex-valued mass function degenerates to a mass function in real space. In addition, the proposed complex-valued Deng entropy can also degenerates to Shannon entropy when the complex-valued mass function degenerates to a probability distribution in real space. Some numerical examples demonstrate the compatibility and effectiveness of the complex-valued Deng entropy.

submitted time 2021-06-03 Hits9927Downloads794 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202104.00092 [pdf]

Impact of utility-scale solar photovoltaic array on the aeolian sediment transport in Hobq Desert, China

TANG, Guodong; MENG, Zhongju; GAO, Yong; DANG, Xiaohong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Deserts are ideal places to develop ground-mounted large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) power station. Unfortunately, solar energy production, operation, and maintenance are affected by geomorphological changes caused by surface erosion that may occur after the construction of the solar PV power station. In order to avoid damage to a solar PV power station in sandy areas, it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of wind-sand movement under the interference of solar PV array. The study was undertaken by measuring sediment transport of different wind directions above shifting dunes and three observation sites around the PV panels in the Hobq Desert, China. The results showed that the two-parameter exponential function provides better fit for the measured flux density profiles to the near-surface of solar PV array. However, the saltation height of sand particles changes with the intersection angle between the solar PV array and wind direction exceed 45°. The sediment transport rate above shifting dunes was always the greatest, while that around the test PV panels varied accordingly to the wind direction. Moreover, the aeolian sediment transport on the solar PV array was significantly affected by wind direction. The value of sand inhibition rate ranged from 35.46% to 88.51% at different wind directions. When the intersection angle exceeds 45°, the mean value of sediment transport rate above the solar PV array reduces to 82.58% compared with the shifting dunes. The results of our study expand our understanding of the formation and evolution of aeolian geomorphology at the solar PV footprint. This will facilitate the design and control engineering plans for solar PV array in sandy areas that operate according to the wind regime.

submitted time 2021-04-22 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2590Downloads497 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202104.00095 [pdf]

Glacier mass balance in High Mountain Asia inferred from a GRACE release-6 gravity solution for the period 2002–2016

XIANG, Longwei; WANG, Hansheng; JIANG, Liming; SHEN, Qiang; STEFFEN, Holger ; LI, Zhen
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

We provide estimates of glacier mass changes in the High Mountain Asia (HMA) area from April 2002 to August 2016 by employing a new version of gravity solutions of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin-satellite mission. We found a total mass loss trend of the HMA glaciers at a rate of –22.17 (±1.96) Gt/a. The largest mass loss rates of –7.02 (±0.94) and –6.73 (±0.78) Gt/a are found for the glaciers in Nyainqentanglha Mountains and Eastern Himalayas, respectively. Although most glaciers in the HMA area show a mass loss, we find a small glacier mass gain of 1.19 (±0.55) and 0.77 (±0.37) Gt/a in Karakoram Mountains and West Kunlun Mountains, respectively. There is also a nearly zero mass balance in Pamirs. Our estimates of glacier mass change trends confirm previous results from the analysis of altimetry data of the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) DEM (Digital Elevation Model) satellites in most of the selected glacier areas. However, they largely differ to previous GRACE-based studies which we attribute to our different post-processing techniques of the newer GRACE data. In addition, we explicitly show regional mass change features for both the interannual glacier mass changes and the 14-a averaged seasonal glacier mass changes. These changes can be explained in parts by total net precipitation (net snowfall and net rainfall) and net snowfall, but mostly by total net radiation energy when compared to data from the ERA5-Land meteorological reanalysis. Moreover, nearly all the non-trend interannual mass changes and most seasonal mass changes can be explained by the total net radiation energy data. The mass loss trends could be partly related to a heat effect due to increased net rainfall in Tianshan Mountains, Qilian Mountains, Nyainqentanglha Mountains and Eastern Himalayas. Our new results for the glacier mass change in this study could help improve the understanding of glacier variation in the HMA area and contribute to the study of global change. They could also serve the utilization of water resources there and in neighboring areas.

submitted time 2021-04-22 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1822Downloads546 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202103.00132 [pdf]

CET: A New Complex Evidence Theory

Lipeng Pan; Yong Deng
Subjects: Information Science and Systems Science >> Basic Disciplines of Information Science and Systems Science

" Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, as an extension of Probability theory, is widely used in the field of information fusion due to it satisfies weaker conditions than probability theory in dealing with uncertain information. Nevertheless , the description space of the current evidence theory is only a real space, and it cannot effectively describe and process the uncertain information in the face of multidimensional characteristic data and periodic data with phase angle changes. Based on this gap , in this paper, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is extended to the complex Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. In complex Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, mass function that used to describe the uncertain information extends from the real space to the complex space, named as complex mass function, and the modulus of the mass function indicates the degree of support for the proposition. On this basis, other basic concepts used to describe uncertainty information are also defined and discussed, such as complex belief function, complex plausibility function, etc. In order to perfect the complex Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, the complex Dempster combination rule (CDCR) is supplemented. CDCR is an extension of Dempster combination rule (CDR), which satisfies the commutative and associative laws just as CDR does, and it can degenerate into CDR under certain condition. In addition, we propose a method to generate complex mass function and apply it to target recognition. The recognized results show that compared with the mass function of the real plane, the target recognition rate can be larger by using complex mass function to describe the uncertain information.

submitted time 2021-03-23 Hits13546Downloads1329 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202102.00065 [pdf]

Region-wide glacier area and mass budgets for the Shaksgam River Basin, Karakoram Mountains, during 2000–2016

WANG Panpan; LI Zhongqin; XU Chunhai; WANG Puyu
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The Karakoram Mountains are well known for their widespread surge-type glaciers and slight glacier mass gains. On the one hand, glaciers are one of the sensitive indicators of climate change, their area and thickness will adjust with climate change. On the other hand, glaciers provide freshwater resources for agricultural irrigation and hydroelectric generation in the downstream areas of the Shaksgam River Basin (SRB) in western China. The shrinkage of glaciers caused by climate change can significantly affect the security and sustainable development of regional water resources. In this study, we analyzed the changes in glacier area from 2000 to 2016 in the SRB using Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper)/ETM+ (Enhanced Mapper Plus)/OLI (Operational Land Imager) images. It is shown that the SRB contained 472 glaciers, with an area of 1840.3 km2, in 2016. The glacier area decreased by 0.14%/a since 2000, and the shrinkage of glacier in the southeast, east and south directions were the most, while the northeast, north directions were the least. Debris-covered area accounted for 8.0% of the total glacier area. We estimated elevation and mass changes using the 1 arc-second SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM (Digital Elevation Model) (2000) and the resolution of 8 m HMA (High Mountain Asia) DEM (2016). An average thickness of 0.08 (±0.03) m/a, or a slight mass increase of 0.06 (±0.02) m w.e./a has been obtained since 2000. We found thinning was significantly lesser on the clean ice than the debris-covered ice. In addition, the elevation of glacier surface is spatially heterogeneous, showing that the accumulation of mass is dominant in high altitude regions, and the main mass loss is in low altitude regions, excluding the surge-type glacier. For surge-type glaciers, the mass may transfer from the reservoir to the receiving area rapidly when surges, then resulting in an advance of glacier terminus. The main surge mechanism is still unclear, it is worth noting that the surge did not increase the glacier mass in this study.

submitted time 2021-02-10 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1151Downloads639 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202010.00033 [pdf]

Fetch effect on the developmental process of aeolian sand transport in a wind tunnel

CHEN,Zongyan; XIAO,Fengjun; DONG,Zhibao
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

As the sand mass flux increases from zero at the leading edge of a saltating surface to the equilibrium mass flux at the critical fetch length, the wind flow is modified and then the relative contribution of aerodynamic and bombardment entrainment is changed. In the end the velocity, trajectory and mass flux profile will vary simultaneously. But how the transportation of different sand size groups varies with fetch distance is still unclear. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the fetch effect on mass flux and its distribution with height of the total sand and each size group in transportation. The mass flux was measured at six fetch length locations (0.5, 1.2, 1.9, 2.6, 3.4 and 4.1 m) and at three free-stream wind velocities (8.8, 12.2 and 14.5 m/s). The results reveal that the total mass flux and the mass flux of each size group with height can be expressed by q=aexp(–bh), where q is the sand mass flux at height h, and a and b are regression coefficients. The coefficient b represents the relative decay rate. Both the relative decay rates of total mass flux and each size group are independent of fetch length after a quick decay over a short fetch. This is much shorter than that of mass flux. The equilibrium of the relative decay rate cannot be regarded as an equilibrium mass flux profile for aeolian sand transport. The mass fluxes of 176.0, 209.3 and 148.0 μm size groups increase more quickly than that of other size groups, which indicates strong size-selection of grains exists along the fetch length. The maximal size group in mass flux (176.0 μm) is smaller than the maximal size group of the bed grains (209.3 μm). The relative contribution of each size group to the total mass flux is not monotonically decreasing with grain size due to the lift-off of some small grains being reduced due to the protection by large grains. The results indicate that there are complex interactions among different size groups in the developmental process of aeolian sand transport and more attention should be focused on the fetch effect because it has different influences on the total mass flux, the mass flux profile and its relative decay rate.

submitted time 2020-10-20 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits872Downloads556 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201912.00014 [pdf]

Effects of recovery time after fire and fire severity on stand structure and soil of larch forest in the Kanas National Nature Reserve, Northwest China

LIU Xiaoju ; PAN Cunde
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

Forest recovery may be influenced by several factors, of which fire is the most critical. However, moderate- and long-term effects of fire on forest recovery are less researched in Northwest China. Thus, the effects of different forest recovery time after fire (1917 (served as the control), 1974, 1983 and 1995) and fire severities (low, moderate and high) on larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) forest were investigated in the Kanas National Nature Reserve (KNNR), Northwest China in 2017. This paper analyzed post-fire changes in stand density, total basal area (TBA), litter mass, soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil nutrients (total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium) with one-way analyses of variance. Results indicate that litter mass, TBA, SOC and soil nutrients increased with increasing recovery time after fire and decreasing fire severity, while the stand density showed an opposite response. The effects of fire disturbance on SOC and soil nutrients decreased with increasing soil depth. Moreover, we found that the time of more than 43 a is needed to recover the litter mass, TBA, SOC and soil nutrients to the pre-fire level. In conclusion, high-severity fire caused the greatest variations in stand structure and soil of larch forest, and low-severity fire was more advantageous for post-fire forest stand structure and soil recovery in the KNNR. Therefore, low-severity fire can be an efficient management mean through reducing the accumulation of forest floor fuel of post-fire forests in the KNNR, Northwest China.

submitted time 2019-12-06 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits3116Downloads671 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201804.01249 [pdf]

Negligible effect of tooth reduction on body mass in Mesozoic birds

ZHOU Ya-Chun; ZHANG Fu-Cheng; Corwin SULLIVAN
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Tooth reduction and loss was an important evolutionary process in Mesozoic birds. Analysis of evolutionary trends in the total mass of the dentition, a function of tooth size and tooth number, has the potential to shed light on the evolutionary pattern of tooth reduction and loss, and on the causes of this pattern. Because modern birds lack teeth, however, they cannot provide the basis for a model that would allow estimation of tooth masses in their Mesozoic counterparts. We selected the teeth of crocodilians as analogues of those in Mesozoic birds because the former are the closest living relatives of the latter, and the two groups are similar in tooth morphology, tooth implantation, and tooth replacement pattern. To estimate tooth masses in Mesozoic birds, we formulated four regression equations relating tooth mass to various linear dimensions, which were measured in 31 intact isolated teeth from eight individual crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis). The results for Mesozoic birds show that dental mass as a proportion of body mass was negligible, at least from the perspective of flight performance, suggesting that selection pressure favoring body mass reduction was probably not the primary driver of tooth reduction or loss. Variations in dental mass among Mesozoic birds may reflect the different foods they ate, and the different types of feeding behavior they displayed.

submitted time 2018-04-04 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits5776Downloads1793 Comment 0

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