按提交时间
按主题分类
按作者
按机构
  • A revision of Anhuichelys Yeh, 1979, the earliest known stem Testudinidae (Testudines: Cryptodira) from the Paleocene of China

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2017-11-07 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Our systematic revision of Anhuichelys Yeh, 1979, based on abundant new material from the Paleocene of Qianshan Basin, Anhui Province, China provides evidences for its assignment to the stem Testudinidae. Anhuichelys contains three species in the Paleocene of Qianshan Basin: A. siaoshihensis Yeh, 1979 from the Early Paleocene of Wanghudun Formation, A. tsienshanensis Yeh, 1979 from both Wanghudun and Doumu formations and A. doumuensis sp. nov. from the Middle Paleocene Doumu Formation. A. xinzhouensis Chen, 1983 from the Paleocene of Xinzhou, Hubei Province is synonymized with A. tsienshanensis. Associated with a terrestrial vertebrate fauna, Anhuichelys is likely a land turtle and also the first testudinoid to develop the hinge on the shell.

  • Dentition of Subengius mengi (Mammalia: Plesiadapoidea) and a reassessment of the phylogenetic relationships of Asian Carpolestidae

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2017-11-07 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:New fossils pertaining to the oldest known Asian plesiadapiform, the Gashatan carpolestid Subengius mengi, clarify aspects of the dental anatomy of this taxon. The dentition of S. mengi is substantially more primitive than previously recognized in retaining a lower dental formula of 2.1.3.3, a low-crowned p4 with three main cusps that are less fully connate than their counterparts in species of Elphidotarsius, P3 with a narrower and structurally simpler lingual margin, and in lacking widely splayed paraconid and metaconid on m1. The unique structure of P3 in S. mengi and a reassessment of P3 anatomy in Elphidotarsius sp., cf. E. florencae, suggest that certain cusp homologies on P3 in Carpolestidae have been misinterpreted in the past. Following a detailed character analysis, the phylogenetic relationships of carpolestids and their close relatives are reconstructed. The Bumbanian taxon Chronolestes simul is recovered as the most basal member of Carpolestidae. S. mengi and a second Bumbanian taxon, Carpocristes oriens, also appear to be relatively basal members of the carpolestid radiation, although none of these Asian carpolestid taxa seems to be specially related to each other. Dispersal of carpolestids between Asia and North America appears to have been restricted to earlier parts of the Paleocene, although carpolestids survived on both continents until sometime near the Paleocene–Eocene boundary.

  • The incisor enamel microstructure of Mina hui (Mammalia, Glires) and its implication for the taxonomy of basal Glires

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2017-11-07 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:The incisor enamel microstructure of Mina hui Li et al., 2016 from the upper Wanghudun Formation, Middle Paleogene of Qianshan, Anhui is described following the hierarchical system ranging from crystallites to Schmelzmuster. The enamel sample was taken from the upper incisor of the holotype. The enamel consists of a very thin prismless external layer, a relatively thick outer layer (PE) with radial enamel and an inner layer (PI) with multilayered Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB). The thickness of HSB is irregular and the inclination has a small angle; no transition zones between the HSB; prism cross sections are irregularly round; interprismatic matrix is very thick with crystallites in the PE running parallel to the prism long axes. These characters resemble pauciserial HSB in rodents. Ribbon-like prism seams and convergent crystallite discontinuities are consistent in different portions of the enamel, which are interpreted as a primitive feature for Glires, or even placental mammals. Compared with known enamel structure of basal Glires, the enamel of Mina stands for the earliest known evidence of double-layered enamel of the group. It indicates that the early evolution of Glires and placental mammals is complex and adds more details to the enamel microstructure of the earliest Glires.

  • Paleocene faunal evolution at Polecat Bench in the northern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, USA

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2017-11-07 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Polecat Bench and Mc Cullough Peaks in the northern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming have yielded major discoveries leading to understanding both mammalian biostratigraphy of the North American Paleocene, and the pattern and cause of continental faunal turnover at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. In 1910, Princeton and American Museum paleontologists showed that mammals of the Paleocene were distinctly different from those of the Eocene. This soon led to acceptance of the Paleocene as an epoch different from the Eocene. Eighty years later, Michigan and Carnegie Institution paleontologists showed that the continental Paleocene-Eocene boundary was marked by abrupt faunal turnover and dwarfing associated with a major carbon isotope excursion. This led to recognition of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum or ‘PETM’ as a greenhouse warming event that was truly global. A young scholar involved in paleontology in 1950, Minchen Chow, was introduced to field work on Paleocene mammals in Wyoming. There he developed the experience and expertise that led to parallel exploration of the Paleocene in China. The challenge now is to understand how the parallel Paleocene histories of the North American and Asian continents fit together.

  • A new mimotonidan Mina hui (Mammalia, Glires) from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui, China

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2017-11-07 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Here we report a new genus and species, Mina hui gen. et sp. nov., of basal Glires from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui, China. The new taxon is characterized by combination of the following characters: medium-sized mimotonidan; upper dental formula 2.0.3.3; d I2 transversely narrow and having smooth labial surface without longitudinal groove; M1 the largest cheek tooth and other cheek teeth decreasing in size considerably away from M1 so that the external margin of the upper cheek tooth row is distinctly arched labially; lingual side of upper molars unilaterally hypsodont and bearing no hypostria; hypocone being slightly distolingual to protocone; presence of a mesostyle; upper incisor with double-layered enamel structure; posterior border of anterior root of zygoma situated lateral to M1–2 and infraorbital foramen positioned low. M. hui is one of the earliest known Glires, co-existing with Heomys and Mimotona in Qianshan geographically and Middle Paleocene (ca. 61 Ma) chronologically. We consider that the Mimotonida would include two families: the monotypic Mimotonidae that contains Mimotona and Mimolagidae that includes Mimolagus, Gomphos, Anatolimys, Mina and possibly Amar aleator. Among known mimotonidans, Mimotona probably represents a primitive “morphotype” as the ancestor of lagomorphs, whereas Mimolagidae includes a side branch diverged from the clade evolved toward lagomorphs. Future research may show that Mimolagidae is not a natural group, and may possibly submerge into Mimotonida, or involve more than one family-level clade. The occurrence of Heomys, Mimotona and Mina from Qianshan show that Glires had already diversified by the Middle Paleocene.

  • A synopsis of Paleocene stratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology in the Qianshan Basin, Anhui, China

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2017-11-07 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:The Mesozoic and Cenozoic redbeds in the Qianshan Basin comprise a set of monocline clastic rocks and are subdivided into the Late Cretaceous Gaohebu Formation, the Paleocene Wanghudun Formation (including the Lower, Middle, and Upper members) and Doumu Formation (including the Lower and Upper members). Continuous investigations in the Qianshan Basin since 1970 have resulted in discovery of a lot of vertebrate specimens. Up to date, 61 species (including 9 unnamed ones) in 45 genera of vertebrates, representing reptiles, birds and mammals, have been reported from the Paleocene of the Qianshan Basin. Among them, mammals are most diverse and have been classified into 46 species (7 unnamed) of 33 genera, representing 16 families in 10 orders. According to their stratigraphic occurrence, seven fossiliferous horizons can be recognized in the Qianshan Paleocene. Based on the evidence of mammalian biostratigraphy, the strata from the Lower Member through the lower part of the Upper Member of Wanghudun Formation could be roughly correlated to the Shanghu Formation of the Nanxiong Basin (Guangdong Province) and the Shizikou Formation of the Chijiang Basin (Jiangxi Province), corresponding to the Shanghuan Asian Land Mammal Age (ALMA). Both the upper part of the Upper Member of Wanghudun Formation and the Doumu Formation could be correlated to the Nongshan Formation of the Nanxiong Basin and the Chijiang Formation of the Chijiang Basin, corresponding to the Nongshanian ALMA. Paleomagnetic results from several Chinese Paleocene basins suggest that the Shanghuan is roughly correlative to the Puercan and Torrejonian North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA), while the Nongshanian correlative to the early to middle Tiffanian (Ti1–4a). The Shanghuan and the Nongshanian are probably correlated to the Danian and the Selandian of the Global Geologic Time Scale. Therefore, all the fossil vertebrates collected in the Qianshan Basin are the Early and Middle Paleocene in age.

  • Taxonomic revision of lizards from the Paleocene deposits of the Qianshan Basin, Anhui, China

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2017-11-07 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Although the Late Cretaceous lizard fauna of China and Mongolia is relatively well-known, information on Paleocene lizards from the same region is currently limited. Several species of lizards have been reported from the Paleocene Wanghudun and Doumu formations of Qianshan Basin on the basis of fragmentary specimens, namely Agama sinensis Hou, 1974, Anhuisaurus huainanensis Hou, 1974, Anqingosaurus brevicephalus Hou, 1976, Changjiangosaurus huananensis Hou, 1976, Qianshanosaurus huangpuensis Hou, 1974, and Tinosaurus doumuensis Hou, 1974. In this paper, we review all the reported material of these taxa with the aid of new technology, including CT scanning, and according to current views of squamate relationships and classification. Revised descriptions and classifications are given for each taxon, leading to changes in our understanding of faunal composition. This, in turn, reveals greater morphological and ecological diversity among the Paleocene lizards of the Qianshan Basin, including the occurrence of a varaniform (IVPP V 22767), and the reinterpretation of Anqingosaurus as a possible burrower. Further work on the Paleocene Qianshan lizards is ongoing and the discovery of new specimens may help to solve the puzzles these strange lizards have posed.

  • Presence of the calcaneal canal in basal Glires

    分类: 生物学 >> 动物学 提交时间: 2017-11-07 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:A unique canal (calcaneal canal) running diagonally through the calcaneus was commonly considered as characteristic for lagomorphs, both extant and fossil, but absent in rodents and other pertinent lagomorph relatives. However, our investigation of a calcaneus from the Middle Paleocene of Qianshan, Anhui Province and specimens previously grouped in Mimotonidae also shows presence of canals on calcaneus bones. To further explore the unique character, we scanned calcanei of Ordolagus, Mimolagus, Gomphos, Rhombomylus, and Oryctolagus using micro CT and investigated the calcanei of some other related taxa under microscope. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the calcanei based on CT data of these taxa confirmed the presence of apertures traversing the large medullary cavity. The diagonally oriented calcaneal canal is present not only in lagomorphs, but also in non-lagomorph duplicidentates, such as Mimotona, Gomophos, and simplicidentates, such as Rhombomylus, though smaller in size. Hence, the presence of calcaneal canal may be one of the synapomophic characters for Glires, not only for the order Lagomorpha. The shared calcaneus character confirms the close relationship between Simplicidentata and Duplicidentata.

  • Taxonomic reassessment and phylogenetic test of Asiatosuchus nanlingensis Young, 1964 and Eoalligator chunyii Young, 1964

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:The present paper revalidated Asiatosuchus nanlingensis Young, 1964 and Eoalligator chunyii Young, 1964 in taxonomy based on a detailed comparative study on those relevant specimens. New information derived from this study revealed that A. nanlingensis and E. chunyii were truly distinguishable from each other and therefore, diagnosis was further revised for each of them. A. nanlingensis is large, with a moderately long or a very elongate snout, and characterised mainly by the combination of the following characters such as: the quadrate with a lateral condyle much larger than the medial one, the surangular pinched off before reaching the end of the retroarticular process, the dental margins (at least the posterior portion) of the jaws nearly straight, and the presence of a fossa/sulcus on the lateral surface of the surangular lateral to the mandibular fossa. E. chunyii is a median-sized, short-snouted animal and characterised mainly by the combination of the following characters such as: the condyles of the quadrate similar in size, the dental margins of the jaws strongly concavo-convex, the dentary symphyses very short, the splenial not entering the mandibular symphysis, and the presence of a fossa/sulcus on the lateral surface of the surangular lateral to the mandibular fossa. With new information derived from this study, the phylogenetic relationships of A. nanlingensis and E. chunyii were tested, which did not support the view that the two species formed a monophyletic clade and opposed that E. chunyii could be considered as the synonym of A. nanlingensis. 根据对有关标本的详细对比研究,重新评估了南岭亚洲鳄(Asiatosuchus nanlingensis Young, 1964)和存义始猛鳄(Eoalligator chunyii Young, 1964)的分类。获得的新信息表明这两种是可以彼此区分的,因此对它们各自的鉴定特征进行了进一步修订。南岭亚洲鳄是个大型种类,它很可能具有中等或很长的吻部(眶前段), 主要由以下一些特征组合界定:方骨外髁比内髁大很多,上隅骨在反关节突近端尖灭,上、下颌齿缘(至少后段)几近平直,以及在下颌关节窝外侧上隅骨表面具一凹或纵沟。存义始猛鳄是个中型种类,主要可以由下列特征组合界定:方骨内、外关节髁大小几近相当,上、下颌齿缘强烈凹凸不平,齿骨联合很短,夹板骨不进入下颌联合,以及在下颌关节窝外侧上隅骨表面具一凹或纵沟。根据新的信息对南岭亚洲鳄和存义始猛鳄原来的系统关系进行了检验,所得结果不支持南岭亚洲鳄和存义始猛鳄可以形成一单系分支及反对后者是前者的同物异名。虽然本文研究表明南岭亚洲鳄可以和其他种类区分,但是在系统关系上却不能和亚洲鳄典型种(葛氏亚洲鳄Asiatosuchus grangeri)归于同一支系,如此应该为其建立一属。然而,鉴于南岭亚洲鳄标本太不完整,在没有新的、更完整的标本发现之前,本文仍沿用其原名,如德国亚洲鳄(Asiatosuchus germanicus)一样,后者也不和亚洲鳄典型种归于同一支系。