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1. chinaXiv:202004.00009 [pdf]

CAN Algorithm: An Individual Level Approach to identify Consequences and Norms Sensitivities and Overall Action/inaction Preferences in Moral Decision-making

Chuanjun Liu; Jiangqun Liao
Subjects: Psychology >> Psychological Measurement

Gawronski et al. (2017) developed a CNI model to measure an agent’s norms sensitivity, consequences sensitivity, and generalized inaction/action preferences when making moral decisions. However, the CNI model presupposed that an agent considers consequences—norms—generalized inaction/action preferences sequentially, which is untenable based on recent evidence. Moreover, the CNI model generates parameters at the group level based on binary categoric data. Hence, the C/N/I parameters cannot be used for correlation analyses or other conventional research designs. To solve these limitations, we developed the CAN algorithm to compute norms and consequences sensitivities and overall action/inaction preferences algebraically in a parallel manner. We re-analyzed the raw data of Gawronski et al.(2017) to test the methodological predictions. Our results demonstrate that: (1) the C parameter is approximately equal between the CNI model and CAN algorithm; (2) the N parameter under the CNI model approximately equals N/(1 – C) under the CAN algorithm; (3) the I parameter and A parameter are reversed around 0.5 – the larger the I parameter, the more the generalized inaction versus action preference and the larger the A parameter, the more overall action versus inaction preference; (4) tests of differences in parameters between groups with the CNI model and CAN algorithm led to almost the same statistical conclusion; (5) Parameters from the CAN algorithm can be used for correlational analyses and multiple comparisons, and this is an advantage over the parameters from the CNI model. The theoretical and methodological implications of our study were also discussed.

submitted time 2020-04-03 Hits6196Downloads604 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201910.00029 [pdf]

Stand up to Action: The Postural Effect on Deontological Responding and the Boundary Condition of Dual Process

刘传军; 廖江群
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Present research aimed to uncover a postural effect on deontological responding and its boundary condition of dual process. Previous literatures demonstrated a possibility that people have a stronger controlled cognitive process propensity, thus being less deontological in standing than sitting postures, and that this postural effect can be moderated by dual process. We conducted two studies in which participant read dilemma scenarios and rated the morally acceptance and action intention of the utilitarian proposal after each scenario when sitting or standing. The hypothesized postural effect was verified in a field study (Study 1) and also replicated in an experimental study (Study 2). Compared with those in sitting postures, participants in standing postures approved more to the utilitarian proposal and became less deontological. Furthermore, the postural effect was dismissed when participants made moral decisions with a dual task to increase cognitive load and reversed when participants made moral decisions after deliberate consideration of the sacrificial proposal (Study 2). Thus, the postural effect was stable across field and experimental studies and moderated by dual process. The present research supports and extends the dual process morality theory by confirming that body posture can affect moral decision-making, and also offers a novel evidence confirming the moderating role of dual process on embodiment effects. It enriches our knowledge that morality is evolutionarily embodied in postures and dual process can moderate the embodiment effects.

submitted time 2020-01-14 Hits16856Downloads1209 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201605.01366 [pdf]

Sharpened cortical tuning and enhanced cortico-cortical communication contribute to the long-term neural mechanisms of visual motion perceptual learning

Chen, Nihong; Li, Sheng; Fang, Fang; Chen, Nihong; Li, Sheng; Fang, Fang; Chen, Nihong; Li, Sheng; Fang, Fang; Chen, Nihong; Fang, Fang; Bi, Taiyong; Bi, Taiyong; Zhou, Tiangang; Liu, Zili
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Neurosciences

Much has been debated about whether the neural plasticity mediating perceptual learning takes place at the sensory or decision-making stage in the brain. To investigate this, we trained human subjects in a visual motion direction discrimination task. Behavioral performance and BOLD signals were measured before, immediately after, and two weeks after training. Parallel to subjects' long-lasting behavioral improvement, the neural selectivity in V3A and the effective connectivity from V3A to IPS (intraparietal sulcus, a motion decisionmaking area) exhibited a persistent increase for the trained direction. Moreover, the improvement was well explained by a linear combination of the selectivity and connectivity increases. These findings suggest that the long-term neural mechanisms of motion perceptual learning are implemented by sharpening cortical tuning to trained stimuli at the sensory processing stage, as well as by optimizing the connections between sensory and decision-making areas in the brain. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits1971Downloads878 Comment 0

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