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1. chinaXiv:202111.00045 [pdf]

Succession of soil bacterial and fungal communities of Caragana korshinskii plantation in a typical agro-pastoral ecotone in northern China over a 50-a period

MA Gailing; GOU Qianqian; WANG Guohua; QU Jianjun
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Bacterial and fungal communities play critical roles in reestablishing vegetation structure, function and biodiversity in ecosystem restoration in arid and semi-arid areas. However, the long-term successional changes in bacterial and fungal communities that occur with artificial vegetation development are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the successional changes in bacterial and fungal communities in Caragana korshinskii Kom. plantation over a period of 50 a (6, 12, 18, 40 and 50 a) and their relationships with key soil environmental factors in a typical agro-pastoral ecotone, northern China. The results showed that bacterial and fungal diversities (α- and β-diversity) were significantly affected by plantation age; moreover, the change in fungal community was more evident than that in bacterial community. Soil samples from 12 a plantation had the highest (P<0.05) bacterial and fungal α-diversity (i.e., abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and Chao1 index) at 0–10 cm depth compared with other samples. However, soil samples from plantation at the late recovery stage (40–50 a) had the highest α-diversity at 10–20 cm depth. Soil bacterial community was not significantly affected by plantation age at the genus level; but, soil fungal community was significantly affected at the genus level. Overall, Mortierella and Chaetomium were the dominant genera at natural recovery stage (0 a); Inocybe was the dominant genus at the early recovery stage (6–12 a); Inocybe and Mortierella were the dominant genera at the mid-recovery stage (12–40 a); And Mortierella, Cladosporium and Humicola were the dominant genera at the late recovery stage (40–50 a). Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that β-glucosidase activity, total nitrogen and soil organic carbon were closely associated with bacterial community composition, while alkaline phosphatase, urease activity and total nitrogen were associated with fungal community composition, indicating that changes in enzyme activity and soil nutrients were the most important determinants of dominant genera. Furthermore, pathogenic microorganisms (Cladosporium and Humicola) were dominant in soils from 40–50 a plantation, which may affect plant growth, resulting in the decline of C. korshinskii plantation. Overall, the findings of this study improve the understanding of ecological patterns of bacterial and fungal communities in artificial vegetation and provide an important scientific basis for comprehensive ecological restoration management in arid and semi-arid areas.

submitted time 2021-11-10 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1839Downloads184 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202111.00001 [pdf]

Research for the variables behind Customers' Repurchase Intention to the Craft Beer

Subjects: Management Science >> Other Disciplines of Management Science

With the upgrade of consumption level, craft beer has attracted growing attention and appreciation from consumers. This study has investigated the influence of brand image, perceived service quality, beer flavor diversity, and price rationality on customers' repurchase intention, along with the mediating role of customers' satisfaction in the aforementioned relationships. The study was conducted in Wuhan, Hubei Province, used a Likert-scale questionnaire as the main body of the questionnaire. IBM SPSS STATISTICS 19 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis. The results revealed the positively of brand image, perceived service quality, beer flavor diversity, and price rationality on customers' repurchase intention, along with the mediating role of customers' satisfaction in the aforementioned relationships. This study also found that brand image occupies a dominant position in the variables that promote the customers' repurchase intention in the craft beer industry. The results of study contributed to an understanding of craft beer consumption behavior.

submitted time 2021-11-01 Hits2447Downloads334 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202106.00008 [pdf]

Vegetation dynamics of coal mining city in an arid desert region of Northwest China from 2000 to 2019

ZHOU Siyuan; DUAN Yufeng; ZHANG Yuxiu; GUO Jinjin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Coal mining has led to serious ecological damages in arid desert region of Northwest China. However, effects of climatic factor and mining activity on vegetation dynamics and plant diversity in this region remain unknown. Wuhai City located in the arid desert region of Northwest China is an industrial city and dominated by coal mining. Based on Landsat data and field investigation in Wuhai City, we analyzed the vegetation dynamics and the relationships with climate factors, coal mining activity and ecological restoration projects from 2000 to 2019. Results showed that vegetation in Wuhai City mostly consisted of desert plants, such as Caragana microphylla, Tetraena mongolica and Achnatherum splendens. And the vegetation fractional coverage (VFC) and greenness rate of change (GRC) showed that vegetation was slightly improved during the study period. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was positively correlated with annual mean precipitation, relative humidity and annual mean temperature, indicating that these climate factors might play important roles in the improved vegetation. Vegetation coverage and plant diversity around the coal mining area were reduced by coal mining, while the implementation of ecological restoration projects improved the vegetation coverage and plant diversity. Our results suggested that vegetation in the arid desert region was mainly affected by climate factors, and the implementation of ecological restoration projects could mitigate the impacts of coal mining on vegetation and ecological environment.

submitted time 2021-06-04 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5325Downloads693 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202104.00093 [pdf]

Soil bacterial characteristics between surface and subsurface soils along a precipitation gradient in the Alxa Desert, China

TENG, Zeyu; XIAO, Shengchun; CHEN, Xiaohong; HAN, Chao
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Bacteria in desert soil have unique phylogeny and important ecological functions, and their responses to changes in precipitation need further attention. However, relevant studies have mainly focused on the surface soil, and studies on the responses of bacteria at different soil depths to variations in precipitation are rare. Thus, we used 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing to investigate the changes in soil bacterial distribution along a mean annual precipitation gradient (50–150 mm) in the Alxa Desert, China, and compared the variation characteristics in the surface soil layer (0–10 cm) and subsurface soil layer (10–20 cm). Results showed that soil bacterial communities significantly changed along the precipitation gradient in both soil layers. However, the subsurface soil layer could support bacterial communities with higher diversity and closer internal relationships but more internal competition than the surface soil layer. Additionally, compared with the surface soil layer, variations in diversity and co-occurrence patterns in the subsurface soil layer were more in line with the changes in the mean annual precipitation, while bacterial community structure was less variable in the subsurface soil layer. Compared with the mean annual precipitation, soil moisture had little influence on the structure and diversity of soil bacterial community but had a high correlation with intercommunity connectivity. Therefore, soil moisture might play a complex role in mediating environmental conditions and soil bacterial community characteristics. Due to the different responses of surface and subsurface soil bacteria to the changes in precipitation, it is necessary to distinguish different soil layers when predicting the trends in desert soil bacterial conditions associated with precipitation, and prediction of subsurface soil bacteria may be more accurate.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2437Downloads422 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202104.00094 [pdf]

Snowpack shifts cyanobacterial community in biological soil crusts

ZHANG, Bingchang; ZHANG, Yongqing; ZHOU, Xiaobing; LI, Xiangzhen; ZHANG, Yuanming
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Winter snowpack is an important source of moisture that influences the development of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in desert ecosystems. Cyanobacteria are important photosynthetic organisms in BSCs. However, the responses of the cyanobacterial community in BSCs to snowpack, snow depth and melting snow are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the cyanobacterial community composition and diversity in BSCs under different snow treatments (doubled snow, ambient snow and removed snow) and three snow stages (stage 1, snowpack; stage 2, melting snow; and stage 3, melted snow) in the Gurbantunggut Desert in China. In stages 1 and 2, Cyanobacteria were the dominant phylum in the bacterial community in the removed snow treatment, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in the bacterial communities in the ambient snow and doubled snow treatments. The relative abundances of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased with increasing snow depth. The relative abundances of Cyanobacteria and other bacterial taxa were affected mainly by soil temperature and irradiance. In stages 2 and 3, the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria increased quickly due to the suitable soil moisture and irradiance conditions. Oscillatoriales, Chroococcales, Nostocales, Synechococcales and unclassified Cyanobacteria were detected in all the snow treatments, and the most dominant taxa were Oscillatoriales and Chroococcales. Various cyanobacterial taxa showed different responses to snowpack. Soil moisture and irradiance were the two critical factors shaping the cyanobacterial community structure. The snowpack depth and duration altered the soil surface irradiance, soil moisture and other soil properties, which consequently were selected for different cyanobacterial communities. Thus, local microenvironmental filtering (niche selection) caused by snow conditions may be a dominant process driving shifts in the cyanobacterial community in BSCs.

submitted time 2021-04-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2481Downloads448 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202011.00135 [pdf]

Rapid loss of leguminous species in the semi-arid grasslands of northern China under climate change and mowing from 1982 to 2011

XU,Bo; HUGJILTU,Minggagud; BAOYIN,Taogetao; ZHONG,Yankai; BAO,Qinghai; ZHOU,Yanlin; LIU,Zhiying
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Effects of mowing on the composition and diversity of grasslands varied with climate change (e.g., precipitation and temperature). However, the interactive effects of long-term mowing and climate change on the diversity and stability of leguminous and non-leguminous species in the semi-arid grasslands are largely unknown. Here, we used in situ monitoring data from 1982 to 2011 to examine the effects of continuous mowing and climate change on the plant biomass and diversity of leguminous and non-leguminous species, and soil total nitrogen in the typical semi-arid grasslands of northern China. Results showed that the biomass and diversity of leguminous species significantly decreased with the increasing in the biomass and diversity of non-leguminous species during the 30-a period. Variations in biomass were mainly affected by the long-term mowing, while variations in diversity were mainly explained by the climate change. Moreover, the normalized change rates of diversity in leguminous species were significantly higher than those in non-leguminous species. Mowing and temperature together contributed to the diversity changes of leguminous species, with mowing accounting for 50.0% and temperature 28.0%. Temporal stability of leguminous species was substantially lower than that of non-leguminous species. Consequently, soil total nitrogen decreased in the 2000s compared with the 1980s. These findings demonstrated that leguminous species were more sensitive to the long-term mowing and climate change than non-leguminous species in the semi-arid grasslands. Thus, reseeding appropriate leguminous plants when mowing in the semi-arid grasslands may be a better strategy to improve nitrogen levels of grassland ecosystems and maintain ecosystem biodiversity.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2855Downloads635 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202010.00024 [pdf]

Relationship of species diversity between overstory trees and understory herbs along the environmental gradients in the Tianshan Wild Fruit Forests, Northwest China

CHENG,Junhui; SHI,Xiaojun; FAN,Pengrui; ZHOU,Xiaobing; SHENG,Jiandong; ZHANG,Yuanming
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

In forest ecosystems, interactions between overstory trees and understory herbs play an important role in driving plant species diversity. However, reported links between overstory tree and understory herb species diversity have been inconsistent, due to variations in forest types and environmental conditions. Here, we measured species richness (SR) and diversity (Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson's (D) indices) of overstory trees and understory herbs in the protected Tianshan Wild Fruit Forest (TWFF), Northwest China, to explore their relationships along the latitudinal, longitudinal, elevational, and climatic (current climate and paleoclimate) gradients in 2018. We found that SR, and H' and D diversity indices of overstory trees and understory herbs exhibited a unimodal pattern with increasing latitude and elevation (P<0.05) and negative associations with longitude (P<0.01). Along the climatic gradients, there were U-shaped patterns in SR, and H' and D diversity indices between trees and herbs (P<0.05). SR, and H' and D diversity indices for overstory tree species were positively associated with those for understory herbs (P<0.01). These findings indicate that overstory trees and understory herbs should be protected concurrently in the TWFF to increase effectiveness of species diversity conservation programs.

submitted time 2020-10-20 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2301Downloads782 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202010.00025 [pdf]

Exploring tree diversity and stand structure of savanna woodlands in southeastern Sudan

HASOBA,Ahmed M M ; SIDDIG,Ahmed A H ; YAGOUB,Yousif E
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Savanna woodlands in Sudan host great biodiversity, provide a plethora of ecosystem goods and services to local communities, and sustain numerous ecological functions. Although the importance of the Acacia trees in these areas is well known, up-to-date information about these woodlands' diversity is limited and changes in their woody vegetation composition, density, diversity and relative frequency are not monitored over time. This study explored tree diversity and stand stage structure in Nuara Reserved Forest, a typical savanna woodland ecosystem in southeastern Sudan. A total of 638 circular sample plots (1000 m2 for each) were established using a systematic sampling grid method. The distance between plots was 200 m. In each plot, all living trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥5.00 cm were identified and counted, and their DBH values were recorded. From these data, tree composition, diversity, density and stage structure were assessed. There were 12,259 individual trees representing four species (Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia Senegal and Acacia mellifera) that belong to two families. The dominant species was Acacia seyal. Average tree density was 191 trees/hm2 and the Shannon-Weiner index for trees diversity was 0.204. Overall, young trees comprised 86.30% of the forest. The state of tree richness and density in the study area was low compared to other similar environments in the region and around the world. We recommended adoption of a proper management system that includes monitoring of woody vegetation diversity in this forest, and management actions to enhance tree diversity and sustain ecosystem services to local communities. In addition to care for the dominant Acacia seyal stands, more attention and conservation should be devoted to reestablishing Acacia senegal and Acacia mellifera trees because of their high ecological and economic values for local communities.

submitted time 2020-10-20 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2441Downloads764 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202006.00242 [pdf]

Effects of long-term warming on the aboveground biomass and species diversity in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China

WEN Jing; QIN Ruimin; ZHANG Shixiong; YANG Xiaoyan; XU Manhou
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Ecosystems in high-altitude regions are more sensitive and respond more rapidly than other ecosystems to global climate warming. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) of China is an ecologically fragile zone that is sensitive to global climate warming. It is of great importance to study the changes in aboveground biomass and species diversity of alpine meadows on the QTP under predicted future climate warming. In this study, we selected an alpine meadow on the QTP as the study object and used infrared radiators as the warming device for a simulation experiment over eight years (2011–2018). We then analyzed the dynamic changes in aboveground biomass and species diversity of the alpine meadow at different time scales, including an early stage of warming (2011–2013) and a late stage of warming (2016–2018), in order to explore the response of alpine meadows to short-term (three years) and long-term warming (eight years). The results showed that the short-term warming increased air temperature by 0.31°C and decreased relative humidity by 2.54%, resulting in the air being warmer and drier. The long-term warming increased air temperature and relative humidity by 0.19°C and 1.47%, respectively, and the air tended to be warmer and wetter. The short-term warming increased soil temperature by 2.44°C and decreased soil moisture by 12.47%, whereas the long-term warming increased soil temperature by 1.76°C and decreased soil moisture by 9.90%. This caused the shallow soil layer to become warmer and drier under both short-term and long-term warming. Furthermore, the degree of soil drought was alleviated with increased warming duration. Under the long-term warming, the importance value and aboveground biomass of plants in different families changed. The importance values of grasses and sedges decreased by 47.56% and 3.67%, respectively, while the importance value of weeds increased by 1.37%. Aboveground biomass of grasses decreased by 36.55%, while those of sedges and weeds increased by 8.09% and 15.24%, respectively. The increase in temperature had a non-significant effect on species diversity. The species diversity indices increased at the early stage of warming and decreased at the late stage of warming, but none of them reached significant levels (P>0.05). Species diversity had no significant correlation with soil temperature and soil moisture under both short-term and long-term warming. Soil temperature and aboveground biomass were positively correlated in the control plots (P=0.014), but negatively correlated under the long-term warming (P=0.013). Therefore, eight years of warming aggravated drought in the shallow soil layer, which is beneficial for the growth of weeds but not for the growth of grasses. Warming changed the structure of alpine meadow communities and had a certain impact on the community species diversity. Our studies have great significance for the protection and effective utilization of alpine vegetation, as well as for the prevention of grassland degradation or desertification in high-altitude regions.

submitted time 2020-06-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits7635Downloads829 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202005.00099 [pdf]

Profiling soil free-living nematodes in the Namib ?Desert, Namibia

Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

Functional structure and diversity of soil free-living nematodes in a desert environment depend on plant gender and sampling site. The objective of this study was to compare the composition, abundance and tropic group of soil free-living nematodes in the upper 0–10 cm soil layer under the male and female Acanthosicyos horridus Welw. ex Hook. f. plants and in the inter-shrub open areas (control) in the Namib Desert, Namibia in April 2015. Soil moisture, organic matter (OM) and pH was also analyzed. Free-living nematodes were extracted from 100 g soil using the Baermann funnel procedure, and total number of nematodes was counted under a microscope. Community composition and diversity of soil free-living nematodes were analyzed using 18S rDNA sequences. Results indicated that a total of 67 groups, including 64 species, 2 genera and 1 family were identified. Feeding behavior of 58 species were identified as follows: 15 bacteria-feeding species, 12 fungi-feeding species, 10 plant-parasite species, 5 omnivorous-predator species, 8 animal-parasite species, 5 invertebrate-parasite species and 3 non-free-living nematodes, known as marine species. Moreover, soil free-living nematodes were found to be affected by sampling locations and plant gender, and community composition and density of these nematodes were strongly influenced by soil OM content. Result confirmed that spatial location and plant cover were main factors influencing the diversity of soil free-living nematodes. Moreover, molecular tools were found to be very useful in defining the richness of soil non-free-living nematodes. In conclusion, the results elucidated the importance of biotic variables in determining the composition and abundance of soil free-living nematodes in the Namib Desert, Namibia.

submitted time 2020-05-31 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits4718Downloads991 Comment 0

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