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  • Theoretical analysis of double-differential cross-sections of neutron, proton, deuteron, 3He, and α for the p+6Li reaction

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-29

    摘要: Based on the unified Hauser–Feshbach and exciton model, which can describe the particle emission processes between discrete energy levels with energy, angular momentum, and parity conservations, a statistical theory of light nucleus reaction (STLN) is developed to calculate the double-differential cross-sections of the outgoing neutron and light charged particles for the proton-induced 6Li reaction. A significant difference is observed between the p + 6Li and p +7Lireactions owing to the discrepancies in the energy-level structures of the targets. The reaction channels, including sequential and simultaneous emission processes, are analyzed in detail. Taking the double-differential cross-sections of the outgoing proton as an example, the influence of contaminations (such as 1H, 7Li, 12C, and 16O) on the target is identified in terms of the kinetic energy of the first emitted particles. The optical potential parameters of the proton are obtained by fitting the elastic scattering differential cross-sections. The calculated total double-differential cross-sections of the outgoing proton and deuteron at Ep = 14MeVagree well with the experimental data for different outgoing angles. Simultaneously, the mixed double differential cross-sections of 3He and α are in good agreement with the measurements. The agreement between the measured data and calculated results indicates that the two-body and three-body breakup reactions need to be considered, and the pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism dominates the reaction processes. Based on the STLN model, a PLUNF code for the p + 6Li reaction is developed to obtain an ENDF-6-formatted file of the double-differential cross-sections of the nucleon and light composite charged particles.

  • PSRDP: A Parallel Processing Method for Pulsar Baseband Data

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: To address the problem of real-time processing of ultra-wide bandwidth pulsar baseband data, we designed and implemented a pulsar baseband data processing algorithm (PSRDP) based on GPU parallel computing technology. PSRDP can perform operations such as baseband data unpacking, channel separation, coherent dedispersion, Stokes detection, phase and folding period prediction, and folding integration in GPU clusters. We tested the algorithm using the J0437-4715 pulsar baseband data generated by the CASPSR and Medusa backends of the Parkes, and the J0332+5434 pulsar baseband data generated by the self-developed backend of the NanShan Radio Telescope. We obtained the pulse profiles of each baseband data. Through experimental analysis, we have found that the pulse profiles generated by the PSRDP algorithm in this paper are essentially consistent with the processing results of Digital Signal Processing Software for Pulsar Astronomy (DSPSR), which verified the effectiveness of the PSRDP algorithm. Furthermore, using the same baseband data, we compared the processing speed of PSRDP with DSPSR, and the results showed that PSRDP was not slower than DSPSR in terms of speed. The theoretical and technical experience gained from the PSRDP algorithm research in this article lays a technical foundation for the real-time processing of QTT (Qi Tai radio Telescope) ultra-wide bandwidth pulsar baseband data.

  • H i in High Gas-phase Metallicity Dwarf Galaxy WISEA J230615.06+143927.9

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: We present resolved Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope H i observations of the high gas-phase metallicity dwarf galaxy WISEA J230615.06+143927.9 (z = 0.005) (hereafter J2306) and investigate whether it could be a Tidal Dwarf Galaxy (TDG) candidate. TDGs are observed to have higher metallicities than normal dwarfs. J2306 has an unusual combination of a blue g − r color of 0.23 mag, irregular optical morphology and high-metallicity (12 + log(O/H) = 8.68 ± 0.14), making it an interesting galaxy to study in more detail. We find J2306 to be an H i rich galaxy with a large extended, unperturbed rotating H i disk. Using our H i data we estimated its dynamical mass and found the galaxy to be dark matter (DM) dominated within its H i radius. The quantity of DM, inferred from its dynamical mass, appears to rule out J2306 as an evolved TDG. A wide area environment search reveals J2306 to be isolated from any larger galaxies which could have been the source of its high gas metallicity. Additionally, the H i morphology and kinematics of the galaxy show no indication of a recent merger to explain the high-metallicity. Further detailed optical spectroscopic observations of J2306 might provide an answer to how a seemingly ordinary irregular dwarf galaxy achieved such a high level of metal enrichment.

  • A Possible γ-Ray Pulsation from PSR J1740−5340B in the Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Recently, a new radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) J1740−5340B, hosted in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, was reported with a 5.78 ms spin period in an eclipsing binary system with a 1.97 days orbital period. Based on a modified radio ephemeris updated by tool tempo2, we analyze the ∼15 yr γ-ray data obtained from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and detect PSR J1740−5340B's γ-ray pulsation at a confidence level of ∼4σ with a weighted H-test value of ∼26. By performing a phase-resolved analysis, the γ-ray luminosity in on-pulse interval of PSR J1740−5340B is Lγ ∼ 3.8 × 1033 erg s−1 using NGC 6397's distance of 2.48 kpc. And γ-rays from the on-pulse part of PSR J1740−5340B contribute ∼90% of the total observed γ-ray emissions from NGC 6397. No significant γ-ray pulsation of another MSP J1740−5340A in the GC is detected. Considering that the previous four cases of MSPs in GCs, more data in γ-ray, X-ray, and radio are encouraged to finally confirm the γ-ray emissions from MSP J1740−5340B, especially starving for a precise ephemeris.

  • Periodic Variation Studies of the Two Short Period W UMa-type Eclipsing Binaries: LX Lyn and V0853 Aur

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: In this paper, new light curves (LCs) of contact eclipsing binary (CEB) systems LX Lyn and V0853 Aur are presented and analyzed by using the 2015 version of the Wilson–Devinney (W-D) code. In order to explain their asymmetric LCs, cool starspots on the components were employed. It is suggested that their fill-out degrees are f = 12.0% (LX Lyn) and f = 26.3% (V0853 Aur). At the same time, we found that LX Lyn is a W-type eclipsing binary (EB) with an orbital inclination of i = 8488 and a mass ratio of q = 2.31. V0853 Aur is also a W-type CEB with a mass ratio of q = 2.77 and an orbital inclination of i = 7926. Based on all available times of light minimum, their orbital period changes are studied by using the O − C method. The O − C diagram of LX Lyn reveals a cyclic oscillation with a period of about 14.84 yr and an amplitude of 0.0019 days, which can be explained by the light-travel time effect (LTTE) due to the presence of a third body with a minimum mass of 0.06M⊙. For V0853 Aur, it is discovered that the O − C diagram of the system also shows a cyclic oscillation with a period of 9.64 yr and an amplitude of 0.03365 days. The cyclic oscillation of V0853 Aur can be attributed to the LTTE by means of a third body with a mass no less than 3.77M⊙. The third body may play an important role in the formation and evolution of these systems.

  • The RFI Fast Mitigation Algorithm Based on Block LMS Filter

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: The radio telescope possesses high sensitivity and strong signal collection capabilities. While receiving celestial radiation signals, it also captures Radio Frequency Interferences (RFIs) introduced by human activities. RFI, as signals originating from sources other than the astronomical targets, significantly impacts the quality of astronomical data. This paper presents an RFI fast mitigation algorithm based on block Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. It enhances the traditional adaptive LMS filter by grouping L adjacent time-sampled points into one block and applying the same filter coefficients for filtering within each block. This transformation reduces multiplication calculations and enhances algorithm efficiency by leveraging the time-domain convolution theorem. The algorithm is tested using baseband data from the Parkes 64 m radio telescope's pulsar observations and simulated data. The results confirm the algorithm's effectiveness, as the pulsar profile after RFI mitigation closely matches the original pulsar profile.

  • A Rendezvous Mission to the Second Earth Trojan Asteroid 2020 XL5 with Low-Thrust Multi-Gravity Assist Techniques

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: As the second of Earth's Trojan asteroids, 2020 XL5 is worthy of rendezvous and even sample return missions in many aspects. In this paper, a rendezvous mission to Earth's second Trojan asteroid 2020 XL5 is proposed. However, due to its high inclination and large eccentricity, direct impulsive transfer requires large amounts of fuel consumption. To address this challenge, we explore the benefits of electric propulsion and multi-gravity assist techniques for interplanetary missions. These two techniques are integrated in this mission design. The design of a low-thrust gravity-assist (LTGA) trajectory in multi-body dynamics is thoroughly investigated, which is a complex process. A comprehensive framework including three steps is presented here for optimization of LTGA trajectories in multi-body dynamics. The rendezvous mission to 2020 XL5 is designed with this three-step approach. The most effective transfer sequence among the outcomes involves Earth–Venus–Earth–Venus-2020 XL5. Numerical results indicate that the combination of electric propulsion and multi-gravity assists can greatly reduce the fuel consumption, with fuel consumption of 9.03%, making it a highly favorable choice for this rendezvous mission.

  • Simulation of RFI Cancellation Using Subspace Projection Algorithm for PAF Receiver

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: The simulation of radio frequency interference (RFI) cancellation by applying a spatial filtering technique for phased array feed (PAF) is presented. In order to better reflect the characteristics of PAF, a new signal model is to add the coupling coefficient among elements of PAF to the conventional array signal model. Then the subspace projection (SP) algorithm is used to cancel RFI from the correlation matrix of the signal, and finally, the 2D power image is drawn. The power variation of signal-of-interest direction and RFI direction before and after using the SP algorithm is analyzed. The new signal model and simulation strategy can be used to test and verify the beamformer.

  • Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Selected by Different Model Fitting

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: We present a study of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) selected by fitting the images for all the galaxies in α.40 SDSS DR7 sample with two kinds of single-component models and two kinds of two-component models (disk+bulge): single exponential, single sérsic, exponential+deVaucular (exp+deV), and exponential+sérsic (exp+ser). Under the criteria of the B band disk central surface brightness  and the axis ratio b/a > 0.3, we selected four none-edge-on LSBG samples from each of the models which contain 1105, 1038, 207, and 75 galaxies, respectively. There are 756 galaxies in common between LSBGs selected by exponential and sérsic models, corresponding to 68.42% of LSBGs selected by the exponential model and 72.83% of LSBGs selected by the sérsic model, the rest of the discrepancy is due to the difference in obtaining μ0between the exponential and sérsic models. Based on the fitting, in the range of 0.5 ≤ n ≤ 1.5, the relation of μ0 from two models can be written as . The LSBGs selected by disk+bulge models (LSBG_2comps) are more massive than LSBGs selected by single-component models (LSBG_1comp), and also show a larger disk component. Though the bulges in the majority of our LSBG_2comps are not prominent, more than 60% of our LSBG_2comps will not be selected if we adopt a single-component model only. We also identified 31 giant low surface brightness galaxies (gLSBGs) from LSBG_2comps. They are located at the same region in the color–magnitude diagram as other gLSBGs. After we compared different criteria of gLSBGs selection, we find that for gas-rich LSBGs, M⋆ > 1010M⊙ is the best to distinguish between gLSBGs and normal LSBGs with bulge.

  • The Application of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Small Electrical Time Constant in Fiber Positioner

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: With the development of cutting-edge multi-object spectrographs, fiber positioners located in the focal plane are being scaled down in size, and miniature hollow-cup Permanent Magnet motors are now being considered as a suitable replacement for Faulhaber Precistep stepper motors. However, the small electrical time constant of such coreless motors poses a challenge, as the problem of severe commutation torque ripple in a fiber positioner running a position loop has been tricky. To overcome this challenge, it is advised to increase the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) frequency as much as possible to mitigate the effects of the current fluctuation. This must be done while ensuring adequate resolution of the PWM generator. By employing a voltage open-loop field-oriented control based on a modulation frequency of 1 MHz, the drive current only costs 25 mA under a 3.3 V power supply. The sine degree of phase current is immaculate, and the repeat positioning accuracy can reach 2 μm. Moreover, it is possible to further shrink the bill of devices and the layout area of the Printed Circuit Board, especially in size-sensitive applications. This device has been developed under the new generation of The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope.

  • Spin Evolution of the Magnetar SGR J1935+2154

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short pulses observed in radio frequencies usually originating from cosmological distances. The discovery of FRB 200428 and its X-ray counterpart from the Galactic magnetar SGR J1935+2154 suggests that at least some FRBs can be generated by magnetars. However, the majority of X-ray bursts from magnetars are not associated with radio emission. The fact that only in rare cases can an FRB be generated raises the question regarding the special triggering mechanism of FRBs. Here we report long time spin evolution of SGR J1935+2154 until the end of 2022. According to ν and , the spin evolution of SGR J1935+2154 could be divided into two stages. The first stage evolves relatively steady evolution until 2020 April 27. After the burst activity in 2020, the spin of SGR J1935+2154 shows strong variations, especially for  . After the burst activity in 2022 October, a new spin-down glitch with Δν/ν = (–7.2 ± 0.6) × 10−6 is detected around MJD 59876, which is the second event in SGR J1935+2154. At the end, spin frequency and pulse profile do not show variations around the time of FRB 200428 and radio bursts 221014 and 221021, which supply strong clues to constrain the trigger mechanism of FRBs or radio bursts.

  • Investigating the Evolution of Amati Parameters with Redshift

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the brightest objects in the Universe and, hence, can be observed up to a very high redshift. Properly calibrated empirical correlations between intensity and spectral correlations of GRBs can be used to estimate the cosmological parameters. However, the possibility of the evolution of GRBs with redshift is a long-standing puzzle. In this work, we used 162 long-duration GRBs to determine whether GRBs below and above a certain redshift have different properties. The GRBs are split into two groups, and we fit the Amati relation for each group separately. Our findings demonstrate that estimations of the Amati parameters for the two groups are substantially dissimilar. We perform simulations to investigate whether the selection effects could cause the difference. Our analysis shows that the differences may be either intrinsic or due to systematic errors in the data, and the selection effects are not their true origin. However, in-depth analysis with a new data set comprised of 119 long GRBs shows that intrinsic scatter may partly be responsible for such effects.

  • Design and Cryogenic Performance of a Hexapod Platform for a Large Ground-based Wide Field Survey Telescope

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: The thermal gradient is an important factor that causes degradation to the image quality of telescopes. In order to ensure the accurate alignment of the primary focus unit and the primary mirror, the hexapod platform (as a corrector) is investigated in this paper. First, a ground-based telescope with 2.5 m aperture and 3.5 deg field of view is described. The telescope is under construction, and it is expected to be finished in 2023. Second, the hexapod platform with flexure hinges utilized to adjust the primary focus unit is proposed, which is applied as a corrector. Then, the inverse kinematics of the platform is established and an open-loop control system is built based on it. Finally, the cryogenic performance test for the hexapod platform is performed. The experimental results show that the resolution and repeatability of the translation for the hexapod platform can be achieved at the micrometer level. The resolution and repeatability of the rotation can be achieved at the arc-second level. Therefore, the cryogenic performance of the hexapod platform can meet the optical imaging requirements of the wide-field ground-based telescope. The kinematic analysis and cryogenic performance tests in the paper provide a technical reference for the precise alignment of the primary focus unit and the primary mirror, which can improve the imaging quality of the telescope.

  • Study on the Performance of the GRANDProto300 Particle Detector Array by Simulation

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) is a proposed large-scale observatory designed to detect cosmic rays, gamma-rays, and neutrinos with energies exceeding 100 PeV. The GRANDProto300 experiment is proposed as the early stage of the GRAND project, consisting of a hybrid array of radio antennas and scintillator detectors. The latter, as a mature and traditional detector, is used to cross-check the nature of the candidate events selected from radio observations. In this study, we developed a simulation software called G4GRANDProto300, based on the Geant4 software package, to optimize the spacing of the scintillator detector array and to investigate its effective area. The analysis was conducted at various zenith angles under different detector spacings, including 300, 500, 600, 700, and 900 m. Our results indicate that, for large zenith angles used to search for cosmic-ray in the GRAND project, the optimized effective area is with a detector spacing of 500 m. The G4GRANDProto300 software that we developed could be used to further optimize the layout of the particle detector array in future work.

  • Point-symmetry in SNR G1.9+0.3: A Supernova that Destroyed its Planetary Nebula Progenitor

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: I analyze a new X-ray image of the youngest supernova remnant (SNR) in the Galaxy, which is the type Ia SNR G1.9+0.3, and reveal a very clear point-symmetrical structure. Since explosion models of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) do not form such morphologies, the point-symmetrical morphology must come from the circumstellar material (CSM) into which the ejecta expands. The large-scale point-symmetry that I identify and the known substantial deceleration of the ejecta of SNR G1.9+0.3 suggest a relatively massive CSM of ≳1M⊙. I argue that the most likely explanation is the explosion of this SN Ia into a planetary nebula. The scenario that predicts a large fraction of SN Ia inside PNe (SNIPs) is the core degenerate scenario. Other SN Ia scenarios might lead to only a very small fraction of SNIPs or none at all.

  • On the Identification of N-rich Metal-poor Field Stars with Future Chinese Space Station Telescope

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: During the long term evolution of globular clusters (GCs), some member stars are lost to the field. The recently found nitrogen-rich (N-rich) metal-poor field stars are promising candidates of these GC escapees, since N enhancement is the fingerprint of chemically enhanced populations in GCs. In this work, we discuss the possibility of identifying N-rich metal-poor field stars with the upcoming Chinese Space Station Telescope (CSST). We focus on the main survey camera with NUV, u, g, r, i, z, y filters and slitless spectrograph with a resolution about 200. The combination of UV sensitive equipment and prominent N-related molecular lines in the UV band bodes well for the identification: the color–color diagram of (u − g) versus (g − r) is capable of separating N-rich field stars from normal halo stars, if metallicity can be estimated without using the information on u-band photometry. Besides, the synthetic spectra show that a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 is sufficient to identify N-rich field stars. In the near future, a large sample of N-rich field stars found by CSST, combined with state-of-the-art N-body simulations will be crucial to deciphering GC-Galaxy co-evolution.

  • Disturbance Observer-based Pointing Control of Leighton Chajnantor Telescope

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Leighton Chajnantor Telescope (LCT), i.e., the former Caltech Submillimeter Observatory telescope, will be refurbished at the new site in Chajnantor Plateau, Chile in 2023. The environment of LCT will change significantly after its relocation, and the telescope will be exposed to large wind disturbances directly because its enclosure will be completely open during observation. The wind disturbance is expected to be a challenge for LCT's pointing control since the existing control method cannot reject this disturbance very well. Therefore, it is very necessary to develop a new pointing control method with good capability of disturbance rejection. In this research, a disturbance observer—based composite position controller (DOB-CPC) is designed, in which an H∞ feedback controller is employed to compress the disturbance, and a feedforward linear quadratic regulator is employed to compensate the disturbance precisely based on the estimated disturbance signal. Moreover, a controller switching policy is adopted, which applies the proportional controller to the transient process to achieve a quick response and applies the DOB-CPC to the steady state to achieve a small position error. Numerical experiments are conducted to verify the good performance of the proposed pointing controller (i.e., DOB-CPC) for rejecting the disturbance acting on LCT.

  • Implications of the Stellar Mass Density of High-z Massive Galaxies from JWST on Warm Dark Matter

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: A significant excess of the stellar mass density at high redshift has been discovered from the early data release of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and it may require a high star formation efficiency. However, this will lead to large number density of ionizing photons in the epoch of reionization (EoR), so that the reionization history will be changed, which can arise tension with the current EoR observations. Warm dark matter (WDM), via the free streaming effect, can suppress the formation of small-scale structure as well as low-mass galaxies. This provides an effective way to decrease the ionizing photons when considering a large star formation efficiency in high-z massive galaxies without altering the cosmic reionization history. On the other hand, the constraints on the properties of WDM can be derived from the JWST observations. In this work, we study WDM as a possible solution to reconcile the JWST stellar mass density of high-z massive galaxies and reionization history. We find that, the JWST high-z comoving cumulative stellar mass density alone has no significant preference for either CDM or WDM model. But using the observational data of other stellar mass density measurements and reionization history, we obtain that the WDM particle mass with keV and star formation efficiency parameter  in 2σ confidence level can match both the JWST high-z comoving cumulative stellar mass density and the reionization history.

  • A Cross-matching Service for Data Center of Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Cross-matching is a key technique to achieve fusion of multi-band astronomical catalogs. Due to different equipment such as various astronomical telescopes, the existence of measurement errors, and proper motions of the celestial bodies, the same celestial object will have different positions in different catalogs, making it difficult to integrate multi-band or full-band astronomical data. In this study, we propose an online cross-matching method based on pseudo-spherical indexing techniques and develop a service combining with high performance computing system (Taurus) to improve cross-matching efficiency, which is designed for the Data Center of Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. Specifically, we use Quad Tree Cube to divide the spherical blocks of the celestial object and map the 2D space composed of R.A. and decl. to 1D space and achieve correspondence between real celestial objects and spherical patches. Finally, we verify the performance of the service using Gaia 3 and PPMXL catalogs. Meanwhile, we send the matching results to VO tools-Topcat and Aladin respectively to get visual results. The experimental results show that the service effectively solves the speed bottleneck problem of cross-matching caused by frequent I/O, and significantly improves the retrieval and matching speed of massive astronomical data.

  • Early Phases of Star Formation: Testing Chemical Tools

    分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-02-01 合作期刊: 《Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics》

    摘要: Star-forming processes strongly influence the ISM chemistry. Nowadays, many high-quality databases are available at millimeter wavelengths. Using them, it is possible to carry out studies that review and deepen previous results. If these studies involve large samples of sources, it is preferred to use direct tools to study the molecular gas. With the aim of testing these tools such as the use of the HCN/HNC ratio as a thermometer, and the use of H13CO+, HC3N, N2H+ and C2H as "chemical clocks," we present a molecular line study toward 55 sources representing massive young stellar objects at different evolutionary stages: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), hot molecular cores (HMCs) and ultracompact H ii regions. We found that the use of the HCN/HNC ratio as a universal thermometer in the ISM should be taken with care because the HCN optical depth is a big issue that can affect the method. Hence, this tool should be utilized only after a careful analysis of the HCN spectrum, checking that no line, neither the main nor the hyperfine ones, presents absorption features. We point out that the analysis of the emission of H13CO+, HC3N, N2H+ and C2H could be useful to trace and distinguish regions among IRDCs, HMPOs and HMCs. The molecular line widths of these four species increase from the IRDC to the HMC stage, which can be a consequence of the gas dynamics related to the star-forming processes taking place in the molecular clumps. Our results not only contribute with more statistics, acting as a probe of such chemical tools, useful to obtain information in large samples of sources, but also complement previous works through the analysis of other types of sources.