摘要：The purpose of this study was to design a rapid cycling synchrotron, making it capable of proton beam ultra-high dose rate irradiation, inspired by laser accelerators. The design had to be cheap and simple. We consider our design from six aspects: the lattice, injection, extraction, space charge effects, eddy current effects and energy switching. Efficiency and particle quantity must be addressed when injected. The space charge effects at the injection could affect particles’ number. The eddy current effects in the vacuum chambers would affect the magnetic field itself and generate heat, all of which need to be taken into account. Fast extraction can obtain 1010 protons/pulse, equal to instantaneous dose rate up to 107 Gy/s in a very short time, while changing various extraction energies rapidly and easily to various deposition depths. In the further research we expect to combine a delivery system with this accelerator to realize the FLASH irradiation.
摘要：Radio-frequency (RF) breakdown analysis and location are critical for successful development of high-gradient traveling-wave (TW) accelerators, especially those expected to generate high-intensity, high-power beams. Compared with commonly used schemes involving dedicated devices or complicated techniques, a convenient approach for breakdown locating based on transmission line (TL) theory offers advantages in the typical constant-gradient TW-accelerating structure. To deliver such an approach, an equivalent TL model has been constructed to equate the TW-accelerating structure based on the fundamental theory of the TL transient response in the time domain. An equivalence relationship between the TW-accelerating structure and the TL model has been established via analytical derivations associated with grid charts and veriﬁed by TL circuit simulations. Furthermore, to validate the proposed fault-locating method in practical applications, an elaborate analysis via such a method has been conducted for the recoverable RF-breakdown phenomena observed at an existing prototype of a TW-accelerating-structure-based beam injector constructed at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology. In addition, further considerations and discussion for extending the applications of the proposed method have been given. This breakdown-locating approach involving the transient response in the framework of TL theory can be a conceivable supplement to existing methods, facilitating solution to construction problems at an affordable cost.
摘要：在这项研究中，开发了一种用于医学放疗的x波段驻波双周期线性加速器，它可以使用2.4 MW速调管将电子加速到9 MeV。该结构工作在π/2模式下，采用腔间磁耦合，产生适当的相邻模分离，频率为10 MHz。加速器长度小于600mm，由4个束状细胞和29个正常细胞组成。进行了几何优化、全尺寸射频(RF)模拟和波束动力学计算。利用低功率射频测试对加速器进行了制造和检测。冷态试验结果与仿真和实际测量结果吻合较好。在高功率射频测试中，测量了输出束流、能谱、俘获比和加速器出口光斑大小。输入功率为2.4 MW，脉冲电流为100 mA，输出光斑均方根半径约为0.5 mm。输出动能为9.04 MeV，谱频宽为3.5%，表明该加速器具有良好的性能。
摘要：With the development of high-performance photon sources which have extremely low emittance,
autotuning magnet girders have drawn more and more attention, especially for diffraction-limited storage
rings and free-electron lasers. The biggest challenge is to simultaneously obtain high stability and high
flexibility. In this paper, an autotuning magnet-girder prototype has been designed and developed.
Topological optimization, multipoint supports, and locking systems have been applied for magnet-girder
design to improve the stability. The modal analysis accords with the vibration test well. The natural
frequency of the magnet-girder assembly is deduced as high as 45.6 Hz, which demonstrates good stability.
Ball-cam movers have been chosen as adjustment mechanisms, and a closed-loop control scheme has been
used to pursue high accuracy. The kinematic resolution is better than 1 μm, and the accuracy is better than
1 μm within the adjusting range of #1;5 mm. Besides, it can eliminate most of the calibration, which can
save much manpower and time. The tests demonstrate that the magnet girder can be used for beam-based
girder alignment with high stability and high accuracy.
摘要：The operation of the HIRFL accelerator has shown that the beam transmission efficiency of the sector focusing cyclotron (SFC) injector line is rather poor. Beam simulations have been performed to investigate the possible causes for this low transmission. It is predicted that the property of transversal coupling of the ion beam from electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source can be an important factor to degrade the beam quality by increasing the beam emittance, resulting in a serious particle loss. An improved operation scheme for the SECRAL associated line has been proposed, and the corresponding experiment was carried out. This paper presents the test results.
摘要：In this work, natural neutron spectra at nine sites in Tibet region were measured using a multi-sphere neutron spectrometer. The altitude-dependence of the spectra total fluence rate and ambient dose equivalent rate were analyzed. From the normalized natural neutron spectra at different altitudes, the spectrum fractions for neutrons of greater than 0.1 MeV do not differ obviously, while those of the thermal neutrons differ greatly from each other. The total fluence rate, effective dose rate and the ambient dose equivalent rate varied with the altitude according to an exponential law.
摘要：An electrostatic accelerating column was designed and fabricated by Lanzhou University for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator. In order to achieve a neutron yield of 5.0�1012 n/s, a deuteron beam of 30 mA, accelerated to 400 kV, and transported in the electrostatic accelerating column smoothly are required. One particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH was used to simulate the beam transport, and the IONB1.0 code was used to simulate the intense beam envelopes. Emittance growths due to space charge effect and spherical aberration were analyzed. The simulation results show that the accelerating column can transport deuteron beam of 30 mA smoothly and the requirement for the neutron generator is satisfied.
摘要：For a high-energy electron facility, estimates of induced radioactivity in materials are of considerable importance to ensure that the exposure of personnel and the environment remains as low as reasonably achievable. In addition, accurate predictions of induced radioactivity are essential to the design, operation, and decommissioning of a high-energy electron linear accelerator. In the case of the 200-MeV electron linac of the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), the electrons are accelerated by five acceleration tubes and collimated by copper scrapers. The scrapers, which play a vital role in protecting the acceleration cavity, are bombarded by many electrons over a long-term operation, which causes a significant amount of induced radioactivity. Recently, the NSRL Linac is the first high-energy electron linear accelerator in China to be out of commission. Its decommissioning is highly significant for obtaining decommissioning experience. This paper focuses on the measurement of induced radioactivity on the fourth scraper, where the electron energy was 158 MeV. The radionuclides were classified according to their half-lives. Such a classification provides a reliable basis for the formulation of radiation protection and facility decommissioning. To determine the high-radioactivity area and to facilitate the decommissioning process, the slicing method was applied in this study. The specific activity of 60Co in each slice was measured at a cooling time of ten months, and the results were compared with the predictions generated by Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The trend of the measured results is in good agreement with the normalized simulation results. The slicing simulation using Monte Carlo method is useful for the determination of high-radiation areas and proper material handling protocols and, therefore, lays a foundation for the accumulation of decommissioning experience.
摘要：To upgrade Hefei Light Source (HLS) Linac, eight accelerating units have been constructed to realize full-energy injection of the storage ring. Each of the units consists of two 3-m accelerators driven by one klystron. The input cavity detuning method was developed to measure and correct the phase length of the RF power distribution waveguide system. The design of the waveguide network and the principles of the detuning method are presented in this paper. After correction, the phase error between the waveguide of the two accelerators was less than �0.5�, and the maximum electron energy of Linac reached 805 MeV, which is very near the theoretical maximum value of 810 MeV. These results demonstrate that the calibration of the waveguide was successful.
摘要：The hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline (BL15U1) of SSRF is dedicated to hard X-ray micro/nano-spectrochemical analysis consisting of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It is one of the most versatile instruments in hard X-ray microscopy science. Since its commission in 2009, BL15U1 has allocated over 25000 h beamtime for users, and about 700 proposals have been executed. The beamline and the experimental end-station were upgraded for several times to facilitate the users’ experimental needs and make it more convenient to operate. In this paper, we give a review on the beamline, describing its characteristics, recent technical developments, and a few examples of scientific progresses achieved in recent years on BL15U1.
摘要：A direct incident fluence measurement method based on amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (a-Si EPID) has been developed for pretreatment verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The EPID-based incident fluence conversion method deconvolves EPID images to the primary response distribution based on measured lateral scatter kernels in the EPID detector using Conjugate Gradient algorithm. The primary response is converted to the incident fluence based on measured fluence conversion matrix which corrects for off-axis position dependence of the a-Si EPID response and the "horn" beam profile caused by flatting filter. To verify feasibility and accuracy of this method, square fields of various sizes and two IMRT plans were delivered. The dose distributions computed based on EPID-derived incident fluence were compared with the measurement data. For all square field sizes except the smallest field (2 cm), the mean dose differences in cross-line dose profiles were within 1% excluding the penumbra region, and gamma passing percentages with a 2%/2 mm criterion were about 99%. For two IMRT plans, the least gamma passing percentage for all eight IMRT fields was 98.14% with 2%/3 mm criteria. It can be concluded that our direct EPID-based incident fluence conversion method is accurate and capable of being applied to pretreatment dose verification in clinical routines.
摘要：In this paper, Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy control is proposed for stabilizing the output beam of accelerators. To model the nonlinear system, we proposed a hybrid optimization algorithm based on quantum-inspired differential evolution and genetic algorithm. Based on the T-S model identified, the corresponding state-feedback fuzzy controller is designed. The method is applied to the LaB6 electron gun system in the industrial radiation accelerator and the simulation results show its effectiveness.
摘要：High brightness γ-rays produced by laser Compton scattering (LCS) are ideal probes for the study of nucleon and nuclear structure. We propose such a γ-ray source using the backscattering of a laser from the bright electron beam produced by the linac of the Shanghai Soft X-ray Free-electron Laser (SXFEL) test facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). The performance is optimized through theoretical analysis and benchmarked with 4D Monte-Carlo simulations. The peak brightness of the source is expected to be larger than 2×1022 photons/(mm2 mrad2 s 0.1%BW) and photon energy ranges from 3.7 MeV to 38.9 MeV. Its performance, compared to Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), and the Shanghai Laser-Electron Gamma-ray Source (SLEGS), is given. The potential for basic and applied research is also briefly outlined.
摘要：The multi-bunch injection adopted at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) increases the injection rate greatly, with much less injection time than that of single bunch injection. It reduces massively the beam failure time during users’ operation and prolongs the pulsed injection hardware lifetime. In this paper, the scheme to produce multi bunches for the RF electron gun is described. The filling result and beam orbit stability for top up operation is discussed.
摘要：In order to do alignment between the timing signal and the synchrotron X-ray pulse on the sample spot in the time domain, measuring time structure of the storage ring on the sample spot inside the experimental hutch is a foundational step during the time-resolved experiments using the pulsed synchrotron X-rays with the time structure defined by the storage ring. In this work, the method of time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence (TRXEOL) was designed and implemented to do the measurement. It is based on the principle of time-correlated single photon counting techniques. The measurement system consists of a spectrometer with a detector of photomultiplier tube, a timing system, a set of nuclear instrument modules and a luminescent material of zinc oxide. The measurement was performed on the X-ray absorbed fine structure spectrum beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that this method can be used to measure the time structure of the storage ring with a precision of less than 1 ns. The measurement system can also be used for the time-resolved research for the optical luminescent materials.
摘要：A proton therapy system is a large medical device to treat tumors. Its gantry is of large structure and high precision. A new half-gantry was designed in the Shanghai Advanced Proton Therapy (SAPT) project. In this paper, the weight of gantry in design is reduced significantly by size and structure optimizations, to improve its cost-effectiveness, while guaranteeing the functions and precision. The processes of physics optimization, empirical design optimization, topological optimization and size optimization, together with factors of consideration, are described. The gantry weight is reduced by 30%, with the same precision.
摘要：In this paper, we propose a two-mode polarizable deflecting structure, as a new concept for bunch measurement and beam control. With two modes of HEM11 and HEM12 operating in the same structure on horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, the operation status can be switched between the two polarization modes. They can be operated simultaneously with two independent input power sources. With two-mode deflecting structure, the bunch distortion caused by the geometric wake-fields in the accelerating structure can be measured by one structure.
摘要：Microstructure and oxidation behavior of modified Ni-16Mo-7Cr-4Fe alloys by yttrium microalloying were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, grazing incident X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. M6C and Ni17Y2 phases were observed and the amount of Ni17Y2 increased with yttrium concentration. When the yttrium concentration increased to 0.43wt.%, some Ni17Y2 chains and multi phase regions containing Ni17Y2, M6C and γ phase appeared, which is harmful for the oxidation resistance. The alloy containing 0.05wt.% yttrium showed the best oxidation resistance, which derives its oxidation resistance from the adequate concentration of yttrium in the solid-solution (γ phase), the formation of the protective layer of YCrO3 and chromia oxide and the strengthening effect of yttrium on oxide boundaries.
摘要：The low level radio frequency (LLRF) system for booster accelerator at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) was upgraded by a digital controller based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. Parameters of voltage, frequency and field flatness in the two 5-cell cavities are controlled to meet the requirements of booster. In this article, the ramping curve of cavity voltage, amplitude and phase control loop with vector sum of the two 5-cell cavities, tuning loop and field flatness loop are analyzed and discussed in detail. A different method in tuning loop is adopted due to the limitations of ADC channels. The function realizes energy ramping of electron beam from 150 MeV to 3.5 GeV with a repetition rate of 2 Hz. With the new LLRF controller, the phase stability at ramping mode in 10 hours long operation is improved from � 1.5� (RMS) with open loop to � 0.15� (RMS) with close loop, while the detuning phase and field flatness are maintained to within � 2癮nd � 1%, respectively.
摘要：A novel high-frequency and high power density planar insulated core transformer (PICT) applied to high voltage direct current (DC) generator is introduced. PICT’s operating principle and fundamental configuration are described, and preliminary experimental results in self-designed PICT apparatus are presented. Emphatically, magnetic leakage flux (MFL) giving rise to the output voltage drop is analyzed in detail both theoretically and by finite element method (FEM). Showing good consistency with experimental result, FEM simulation is considered to be practicable in physical design of PICT. To cancel out leakage inductance and improve the voltage uniformity, compensation capacitor is adopted and experimental verification is also presented. All shows satisfactory results.