摘要：Environmental radon emanates from the exhalation and release of soil, rocks, and building materials. Environmental radon contamination tracing and radon pollution prevention and control require the measurement of the radon exhalation rate on media surfaces. Reliable measurements of the radon exhalation rate cannot be achieved without regular calibration of the measuring instrument with a high-performance reference device. In this study, a reference device for the calibration of radon exhalation rate measuring instruments was developed using a diffusion solid radon source with a high and stable radon emanation coefficient, an integrated diffusion component composed of a plasterboard and a high-density wooden board, an air pressure balance device, a radon accumulation chamber, and a support structure. The uniformity and stability of the reference device were evaluated using the activated carbon-γ spectrum and open-loop method, respectively, to measure the radon exhalation rate. The reference device achieved different radon exhalation rates by using different activities of diffusion solid radon sources. Nineteen measurement points were regularly selected on the radon exhalation surface of the reference device, and the uniformity of the radon exhalation rate exceeded 5%. The short-term stability of the reference device was better than 5% under different environmental conditions and was almost unaffected by the ambient air pressure, environmental temperature, and relative humidity.
摘要：The uncertainty of nuclide libraries in the analysis of the gamma spectra of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) using existing methods produces unstable results. To address this problem, a novel spectral analysis method is proposed in this study. In this method, overlapping peaks are located using a continuous wavelet transform. An improved quadratic convolution method is proposed to calculate the widths of the peaks and establish a fourth-order filter model to estimate the Compton edge baseline with the overlapping peaks. Combined with the adaptive sensitive nonlinear iterative peak, this method can effectively subtracts the background. Finally, a function describing the peak shape as a filter is used to deconvolve the energy spectrum to achieve accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses of the nuclide without the aid of a nuclide library. Gamma spectrum acquisition experiments for standard point sources of Cs-137 and Eu-152, a segmented gamma scanning experiment for a 200 L standard drum, and a Monte Carlo simulation experiment for triple overlapping peaks using the closest energy of three typical LILW nuclides (Sb-125, Sb-124, and Cs-134) are conducted. The results of the experiments indicate that (1) the novel method and gamma vision (GV) with an accurate nuclide library have the same spectral analysis capability, and the peak area calculation error is less than 4%; (2) compared with the GV, the analysis results of the novel method are more stable; (3) the novel method can be applied to the activity measurement of LILW, and the error of the activity reconstruction at the equivalent radius is 2.4%; and (4) The proposed novel method can quantitatively analyze all nuclides in LILW without a nuclide library. This novel method can improve the accuracy and precision of LILW measurements, provide key technical support for the reasonable disposal of LILW, and ensure the safety of humans and the environment.