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1. chinaXiv:202107.00031 [pdf]

二语具身认知:自动激活还是母语中介?

白亚停; 何文广
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

语言具身认知强调语言加工不是纯粹抽象符号的内部表征, 身体和环境也在其中发挥着重要作用。已有研究多来自母语(L1)领域, 二语(L2)认知中是否存在该效应及其发生机制依然存在争论。在总结行为和神经电生理学方面L2具身效应的存在的证据的基础上, 结合相关研究的我们提出“自动激活”和“母语中介”两种假说, 并分析和评价两种假说的优缺点和影响因素。最后讨论了该领域存在的问题并就未来研究取向进行展望, 希望有助于完善语言具身认知理论, 增进对双语表征机制的了解, 有效提升L2教学。

submitted time 2021-07-25 Hits53Downloads28 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202107.00033 [pdf]

组织中个人认同的研究新进展——基于过程框架的建构与完善

周意勇; 陈晓卉
Subjects: Psychology >> Management Psychology

个人认同是个体与他人建立某种同一性感知、基于他人定义自我的过程。研究表明,组织中的个人认同与员工的工作表现、工作满意度等密切相关。通过对文献的回顾与梳理,本文针对现有研究对个人认同概念本身及其在组织中演化发展过程关注较少等不足,基于动态视角将组织中的个人认同分为单向性和双向性两种类型,初步建构个人认同在组织中的过程框架,探究其在特定情境下(上下级之间和同事之间)的权变性作用机制,最后提出了未来的发展方向。

submitted time 2021-07-25 Hits65Downloads37 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202107.00032 [pdf]

The Relationships among Structural Social Support, Functional Social Support, and Loneliness in Older Adults: Analysis of Regional Differences based on a Multigroup Structural Equation Model

Haifeng Li; Cong Wang
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Objective: This study investigated the relationship between structural social support and loneliness and explored whether functional social support had an intermediate role therein. It also employed a multigroup structural equation model to compare mediation models among older adults living in cities, towns, and rural areas. Methods: Using a self-made demographics questionnaire, the structural-functional social support scale, and the 3-item UCLA loneliness scale, this study collected information from 1,325 older adults identified via convenience sampling. Results: The results showed that: (1) compared with older adults living in towns, older urban and rural adults had higher structural social support and experienced less loneliness, while older adults’ functional social support showed no difference among the three regions (2) An analysis of the models of regional differences indicated that functional social support served as a full mediator in the relationship between structural social support and loneliness in urban older adults, and a partial mediator for older adults living in towns and rural areas. Conclusion: The relationship between structural social support and loneliness is mediated by functional social support, and this mediation model varies between older adults in cities and towns/rural areas. This study helps us understand possible mechanisms through which structural social support impacts loneliness. It suggests that nursing strategies for older adults should be adjusted according to region and direct greater focus on the function (or quality) of the social support network and on older adults living in towns.

submitted time 2021-07-25 Hits316Downloads158 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202107.00026 [pdf]

数理心理学第一公设:事件结构式

高闯; 马安然; 魏薇; 德力达尔
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology
Subjects: Psychology >> Other Disciplines of Psychology

“实验实证纲领”与 “理论纲领” 属于科学关键纲领。心理学仍处于“实验实证纲领”主导的实验阶段,追求公理、自洽完备的数理架构是内驱目标,也是 APA 的统一性心理学(Unifying Psychology) 核心诉求。“数理心理学”提出关键数理公设,演绎心理学基础问题,并与经典发现惊奇一致:知觉功能结构、语义编码、学习实验的控制结构、知识的结构体系、信息通道完备性。“事件结构式”由于能够串联起物质信息结构表达、信息认知加工机理的底层逻辑,而成为首要公设。这开辟了利用公理公设演绎心理机制的新途径。基于这一原创性,本文将综述事件结构式的数理成果。

submitted time 2021-07-25 Hits127Downloads59 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202107.00030 [pdf]

How Chinese children’s filial piety beliefs affect their parents’ life satisfaction and loneliness: The serial mediating effect of the intergenerational transmission of social support based on a parent-child pair design

Xiaoqian Zheng; Haifeng Li
Subjects: Psychology >> Other Disciplines of Psychology

Guided by the dual filial piety model and socioemotional selectivity theory, this study explores the underlying mechanism of how adult children’s filial piety beliefs affect their parent’s life satisfaction and loneliness. A total of 350 pairs of parent-child data were collected through a parent-child pair design. Results show that emotional support provided by adult children and emotional support perceived by parents fully mediated the relationship between children’s reciprocal filial piety belief and parents’ life satisfaction (β = 0.048, 95% CI: 0.021, 0.081) and loneliness (β = -0.050, 95% CI: -0.083, -0.024), and partially mediated the relationship between children’s authoritarian filial piety belief and parental life satisfaction (β = 0.028, 95% CI: 0.010, 0.051) and loneliness (β = -0.030, 95% CI: -0.053, -0.015). This finding suggests that to improve parental well-being, adult Chinese children should not only cultivate their filial piety, but also pay close attention to their parents’ emotional needs.

submitted time 2021-07-24 Hits80Downloads35 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202107.00027 [pdf]

社会动机理论视角下自闭症谱系障碍者的社交缺陷

王磊; 贺荟中; 毕小彬; 周丽; 范晓壮
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

社交缺陷是自闭症谱系障碍的核心症状。以往研究更多从社会认知的角度指出该症状是心理理论损伤所致,但自闭症谱系障碍个体在获得心理理论之前已表现出社会动机不足的特质,且部分能通过心理理论测试的个体依旧表现出社会动机不足的特点。社会动机理论指出社会动机是促进人类进化、激发和维持个体社会性活动的重要内部动力,自闭症谱系障碍者的社交缺陷是由于社会动机不足所致。该理论从行为表现、神经科学和生物学三个方面对自闭症谱系障碍者的社交缺陷进行解释。未来应进一步完善自闭症谱系障碍个体社会动机的神经机制研究,明确社会动机理论在自闭症谱系障碍群体中的适用范围,探究社会动机理论在评估诊断和临床康复中的应用价值。

submitted time 2021-07-24 Hits70Downloads33 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202107.00028 [pdf]

背外侧前额叶对主动遗忘负性社会反馈的作用:针对抑郁症的TMS研究

陈玉明; 李思瑾; 郭田友; 谢慧; 徐锋; 张丹丹
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

抑郁症患者的负性心境可能源于其抑制功能障碍。患者在主动遗忘负性材料时无法有效调用背外侧前额叶(the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC)等负责抑制控制的额叶脑网络。同时,患者对社会信息的加工比对非社会信息的加工存在更明显的认知神经障碍,很难主动遗忘对自己不利的社会反馈信息。为了提高抑郁症患者对负性社会反馈的主动遗忘能力,本研究采用经颅磁刺激技术(transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS),考察抑郁症患者在左侧(n = 32)或右侧DLPFC (n = 30)被激活后其记忆控制能力的改变。结果表明,当患者的DLPFC被TMS激活时,他们对社会拒绝的回忆正确率与健康对照组(n = 31)无差异,且TMS激活右侧DLPFC还改善了患者对他人的社会态度。本研究是采用TMS提高抑郁症患者主动遗忘能力的首次尝试,研究结果不但支持了DLPFC与记忆控制功能的因果关系,还为临床治疗抑郁症、创伤后应激障碍、药物成瘾等患者的记忆控制缺陷提供了明确的神经靶点。

submitted time 2021-07-23 Hits65Downloads26 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202107.00029 [pdf]

行为免疫系统对个体就医行为倾向的影响

吴奇; 吴浩; 周晴
Subjects: Psychology >> Other Disciplines of Psychology

研究首次考察了行为免疫系统与个体就医行为倾向间的关系。4个研究一致显示:行为免疫系统的激活对个体就医行为倾向具有消极影响,特质性激活水平较高的个体更容易对就医持消极态度和延迟就医;且当外界疾病线索增强时,行为免疫系统的情境性激活会使得个体更不愿意就医和更倾向于延迟就医。这支持了进化失配假说,提示行为免疫系统对现代医学可能缺乏进化的适应性,并为理解现代人类就医行为提供了新的理论视角。

submitted time 2021-07-23 Hits66Downloads31 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202107.00019 [pdf]

A study on historical location and evolution of Lop Nor in China with maps and DEM

ZHANG Tingting; SHAO Yun; GENG Yuyang; GONG Huaze; YANG Lan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Lop Sea, located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China, dried up permanently, which is the terminal lake of the Tarim River. Lop Sea was considered as the lake basin of Lop Nor since Quaternary. However, the possibility that Lop Nor was away from the Lop Sea in historical time is crucial to be discussed to interpret the proxy records in sediment profiles. To obtain a general view of the evolution of Lop Nor and Lop Sea in a historical period, several approaches were adopted in this paper. First, the Qianlong Thirteen-Row Atlas, an ancient imperial atlas of the Qing Dynasty, which was completed around 1760, indicated that the Tarim River formed a relatively large lake at its modern upstream region. Second, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a 10-m spatial resolution and a relative precision of 0.42 m was derived from TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X satellite image pairs using the interferometry method, which was verified using ICESat-GLAS laser footprints and a local DEM acquired by a drone. Finally, based on the spatial analysis of historical documents, expedition reports, sediment profiles and archaeological evidence, it can be deduced that the lacustrine deposition was discontinued in the Lop Sea. Six episodes in the evolutionary history of the drainage system in eastern Tarim Basin were summarized. The proved depositional condition variations could be used for future interpretation of proxy records in sediment. The high-accurate DEM provided a reference for the location of further fieldwork in the Lop Sea. The method proposed in this paper may be efficient for the research of inland lakes or rivers in global arid regions.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits402Downloads203 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202107.00020 [pdf]

An arthropod community beyond the dry limit of plant life

Benjamin DAVIDSON; Elli GRONER
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Water availability, which enables plant growth and animal activity, regulates dryland ecosystem function. In hyper-arid ecosystems, rain cannot support vascular plant growth. Therefore, hyper-arid vegetation is restricted to the lower topography, where runoff accumulates. Typically, food resources originating from areas of dense vegetation are dispersed across the desert floor, enabling animal life in areas lacking vascular plant growth. However, certain regions, such as the hyper-arid upper topography, may be devoid of plant-derived food resources. The present study examined arthropod activity in the upper topography of a hyper-arid desert, in comparison with arthropod activity in the lower topography. Pitfall traps were utilized to compare arthropod activity along unvegetated ridges with activity in parallel, vegetated riverbeds. Surprisingly, the study revealed dense arthropod communities in the barren upper topography. Arthropods collected in the upper topography represented 26% of total arthropod abundance. In addition, the overlap between arthropod identity in the ridges and wadis (i.e., riverbeds) was low, and certain arthropods were strongly affiliated with the ridges. The upper topographic communities included high numbers of silverfish (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae), malachite beetles (Psiloderes), and predatory mites (Acari: Anystidae), and these arthropods were present at various life stages. It remains unclear how arthropod communities can persist in the unvegetated upper topography of the hyper-arid study area. These results raise the possibility that other food sources, independent from vascular plants, may play a significant role in the life history of hyper-arid arthropods.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits326Downloads161 Comment 0

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