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1. chinaXiv:202107.00026 [pdf]

数理心理学第一公设:事件结构式

高闯; 马安然; 魏薇; 德力达尔
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology
Subjects: Psychology >> Other Disciplines of Psychology

“实验实证纲领”与 “理论纲领” 属于科学关键纲领。心理学仍处于“实验实证纲领”主导的实验阶段,追求公理、自洽完备的数理架构是内驱目标,也是 APA 的统一性心理学(Unifying Psychology) 核心诉求。“数理心理学”提出关键数理公设,演绎心理学基础问题,并与经典发现惊奇一致:知觉功能结构、语义编码、学习实验的控制结构、知识的结构体系、信息通道完备性。“事件结构式”由于能够串联起物质信息结构表达、信息认知加工机理的底层逻辑,而成为首要公设。这开辟了利用公理公设演绎心理机制的新途径。基于这一原创性,本文将综述事件结构式的数理成果。

submitted time 2021-07-25 Hits16Downloads7 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202107.00030 [pdf]

How Chinese children’s filial piety beliefs affect their parents’ life satisfaction and loneliness: The serial mediating effect of the intergenerational transmission of social support based on a parent-child pair design

Xiaoqian Zheng; Haifeng Li
Subjects: Psychology >> Other Disciplines of Psychology

Guided by the dual filial piety model and socioemotional selectivity theory, this study explores the underlying mechanism of how adult children’s filial piety beliefs affect their parent’s life satisfaction and loneliness. A total of 350 pairs of parent-child data were collected through a parent-child pair design. Results show that emotional support provided by adult children and emotional support perceived by parents fully mediated the relationship between children’s reciprocal filial piety belief and parents’ life satisfaction (β = 0.048, 95% CI: 0.021, 0.081) and loneliness (β = -0.050, 95% CI: -0.083, -0.024), and partially mediated the relationship between children’s authoritarian filial piety belief and parental life satisfaction (β = 0.028, 95% CI: 0.010, 0.051) and loneliness (β = -0.030, 95% CI: -0.053, -0.015). This finding suggests that to improve parental well-being, adult Chinese children should not only cultivate their filial piety, but also pay close attention to their parents’ emotional needs.

submitted time 2021-07-24 Hits23Downloads9 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202107.00027 [pdf]

社会动机理论视角下自闭症谱系障碍者的社交缺陷

王磊; 贺荟中; 毕小彬; 周丽; 范晓壮
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

社交缺陷是自闭症谱系障碍的核心症状。以往研究更多从社会认知的角度指出该症状是心理理论损伤所致,但自闭症谱系障碍个体在获得心理理论之前已表现出社会动机不足的特质,且部分能通过心理理论测试的个体依旧表现出社会动机不足的特点。社会动机理论指出社会动机是促进人类进化、激发和维持个体社会性活动的重要内部动力,自闭症谱系障碍者的社交缺陷是由于社会动机不足所致。该理论从行为表现、神经科学和生物学三个方面对自闭症谱系障碍者的社交缺陷进行解释。未来应进一步完善自闭症谱系障碍个体社会动机的神经机制研究,明确社会动机理论在自闭症谱系障碍群体中的适用范围,探究社会动机理论在评估诊断和临床康复中的应用价值。

submitted time 2021-07-24 Hits10Downloads6 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202107.00028 [pdf]

背外侧前额叶对主动遗忘负性社会反馈的作用:针对抑郁症的TMS研究

陈玉明; 李思瑾; 郭田友; 谢慧; 徐锋; 张丹丹
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

抑郁症患者的负性心境可能源于其抑制功能障碍。患者在主动遗忘负性材料时无法有效调用背外侧前额叶(the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC)等负责抑制控制的额叶脑网络。同时,患者对社会信息的加工比对非社会信息的加工存在更明显的认知神经障碍,很难主动遗忘对自己不利的社会反馈信息。为了提高抑郁症患者对负性社会反馈的主动遗忘能力,本研究采用经颅磁刺激技术(transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS),考察抑郁症患者在左侧(n = 32)或右侧DLPFC (n = 30)被激活后其记忆控制能力的改变。结果表明,当患者的DLPFC被TMS激活时,他们对社会拒绝的回忆正确率与健康对照组(n = 31)无差异,且TMS激活右侧DLPFC还改善了患者对他人的社会态度。本研究是采用TMS提高抑郁症患者主动遗忘能力的首次尝试,研究结果不但支持了DLPFC与记忆控制功能的因果关系,还为临床治疗抑郁症、创伤后应激障碍、药物成瘾等患者的记忆控制缺陷提供了明确的神经靶点。

submitted time 2021-07-23 Hits8Downloads4 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202107.00029 [pdf]

行为免疫系统对个体就医行为倾向的影响

吴奇; 吴浩; 周晴
Subjects: Psychology >> Other Disciplines of Psychology

研究首次考察了行为免疫系统与个体就医行为倾向间的关系。4个研究一致显示:行为免疫系统的激活对个体就医行为倾向具有消极影响,特质性激活水平较高的个体更容易对就医持消极态度和延迟就医;且当外界疾病线索增强时,行为免疫系统的情境性激活会使得个体更不愿意就医和更倾向于延迟就医。这支持了进化失配假说,提示行为免疫系统对现代医学可能缺乏进化的适应性,并为理解现代人类就医行为提供了新的理论视角。

submitted time 2021-07-23 Hits7Downloads5 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202107.00019 [pdf]

A study on historical location and evolution of Lop Nor in China with maps and DEM

ZHANG Tingting; SHAO Yun; GENG Yuyang; GONG Huaze; YANG Lan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Lop Sea, located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China, dried up permanently, which is the terminal lake of the Tarim River. Lop Sea was considered as the lake basin of Lop Nor since Quaternary. However, the possibility that Lop Nor was away from the Lop Sea in historical time is crucial to be discussed to interpret the proxy records in sediment profiles. To obtain a general view of the evolution of Lop Nor and Lop Sea in a historical period, several approaches were adopted in this paper. First, the Qianlong Thirteen-Row Atlas, an ancient imperial atlas of the Qing Dynasty, which was completed around 1760, indicated that the Tarim River formed a relatively large lake at its modern upstream region. Second, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a 10-m spatial resolution and a relative precision of 0.42 m was derived from TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X satellite image pairs using the interferometry method, which was verified using ICESat-GLAS laser footprints and a local DEM acquired by a drone. Finally, based on the spatial analysis of historical documents, expedition reports, sediment profiles and archaeological evidence, it can be deduced that the lacustrine deposition was discontinued in the Lop Sea. Six episodes in the evolutionary history of the drainage system in eastern Tarim Basin were summarized. The proved depositional condition variations could be used for future interpretation of proxy records in sediment. The high-accurate DEM provided a reference for the location of further fieldwork in the Lop Sea. The method proposed in this paper may be efficient for the research of inland lakes or rivers in global arid regions.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits107Downloads51 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202107.00020 [pdf]

An arthropod community beyond the dry limit of plant life

Benjamin DAVIDSON; Elli GRONER
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Water availability, which enables plant growth and animal activity, regulates dryland ecosystem function. In hyper-arid ecosystems, rain cannot support vascular plant growth. Therefore, hyper-arid vegetation is restricted to the lower topography, where runoff accumulates. Typically, food resources originating from areas of dense vegetation are dispersed across the desert floor, enabling animal life in areas lacking vascular plant growth. However, certain regions, such as the hyper-arid upper topography, may be devoid of plant-derived food resources. The present study examined arthropod activity in the upper topography of a hyper-arid desert, in comparison with arthropod activity in the lower topography. Pitfall traps were utilized to compare arthropod activity along unvegetated ridges with activity in parallel, vegetated riverbeds. Surprisingly, the study revealed dense arthropod communities in the barren upper topography. Arthropods collected in the upper topography represented 26% of total arthropod abundance. In addition, the overlap between arthropod identity in the ridges and wadis (i.e., riverbeds) was low, and certain arthropods were strongly affiliated with the ridges. The upper topographic communities included high numbers of silverfish (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae), malachite beetles (Psiloderes), and predatory mites (Acari: Anystidae), and these arthropods were present at various life stages. It remains unclear how arthropod communities can persist in the unvegetated upper topography of the hyper-arid study area. These results raise the possibility that other food sources, independent from vascular plants, may play a significant role in the life history of hyper-arid arthropods.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits51Downloads25 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202107.00021 [pdf]

Assessment of organic compost and biochar in promoting phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil using Calendula officinalis in the Loess Plateau, China

WANG Jincheng; JING Mingbo; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Gaosen; ZHANG Binglin; LIU Guangxiu; CHEN Tuo; ZHAO Zhiguang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The Loess Plateau, located in Gansu Province, is an important energy base in China because most of the oil and gas resources are distributed in Gansu Province. In the last 40 a, ecological environment in this region has been extremely destroyed due to the over-exploitation of crude-oil resources. Remediation of crude-oil contaminated soil in this area remains to be a challenging task. In this study, in order to elucidate the effects of organic compost and biochar on phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil (20 g/kg) by Calendula officinalis, we designed five treatments, i.e., natural attenuation (CK), planted C. officinalis only (P), planted C. officinalis with biochar amendment (PB), planted C. officinalis with organic compost amendment (PC), and planted C. officinalis with co-amendment of biochar and organic compost (PBC). After 152 d of cultivation, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal rates of CK, P, PB, PC and PBC were 6.36%, 50.08%, 39.58%, 73.10% and 59.87%, respectively. Shoot and root dry weights of C. officinalis significantly increased by 172.31% and 80.96% under PC and 311.61% and 145.43% under PBC, respectively as compared with P (P<0.05). Total chlorophyll contents in leaves of C. officinalis under P, PC and PBC significantly increased by 77.36%, 125.50% and 79.80%, respectively (P<0.05) as compared with PB. Physical-chemical characteristics and enzymatic activity of soil in different treatments were also assessed. The highest total N, total P, available N, available P and SOM (soil organic matter) occurred in PC, followed by PBC (P<0.05). C. officinalis rhizospheric soil dehydrogenase (DHA) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in PB were lower than those of other treatments (P<0.05). The values of ACE (abundance-based coverage estimators) and Chao 1 indices for rhizospheric bacteria were the highest under PC followed by PBC, P, PB and CK (P<0.05). However, the Shannon index for bacteria was the highest under PC and PBC, followed by P, PB and CK (P<0.05). In terms of soil microbial community composition, Proteiniphilum, Immundisolibacteraceae and Solimonadaceae were relatively more abundant under PC and PBC. Relative abundances of Pseudallescheria, Ochroconis, Fusarium, Sarocladium, Podospora, Apodus, Pyrenochaetopsis and Schizothecium under PC and PBC were higher, while relative abundances of Gliomastix, Aspergillus and Alternaria were lower under PC and PBC. As per the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis, application of organic compost significantly promoted soil N and P contents, shoot length, root vitality, chlorophyll ratio, total chlorophyll, abundance and diversity of rhizospheric soil microbial community in C. officinalis. A high pH value and lower soil N and P contents induced by biochar, altered C. officinalis rhizospheric soil microbial community composition, which might have restrained its phytoremediation efficiency. The results suggest that organic compost-assisted C. officinalis phytoremediation for crude-oil contaminated soil was highly effective in the Loess Plateau, China.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits55Downloads26 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202107.00022 [pdf]

Large scale sand saltation over hard surface: a controlled experiment in still air

LIU Benli; WANG Zhaoyun; NIU Baicheng; QU Jianjun
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Saltation is the major particle movement type in wind erosion process. Saltating sand grains can rebound up to tens of times larger in length and height over hard surface (such as gravel surface) than over loose sand surface. Gravels usually have different faces, causing distinct response of the impacting grains, but the effects of the grain and gravel-surface contact angle on grain rebound are not yet well quantified. We performed full-range controlled experiments of grain saltation using different contact angles, grain sizes and impact speeds in still air, to show that contact angle increases the height of representative saltation path but decreases particle travel length. The results were compared with outputs from the COMprehensive numerical model of SALTation (COMSALT). Large saltation height of 4.8 m and length of 9.0 m were recorded. The maximum and representative saltation height over the gravel surface were found to be about 4.9 times and 12.8 times those over the loose sandy surface, respectively. The maximum saltation length may be reduced by 58% and the representative saltation height may be increased by 77% as contact angle increases from 20° to 40°. We further showed that the collision inertia contributes 60% of the saltation length, and wind contributes to the other 40%. These quantitative findings have important implications for modeling saltation trajectory over gravel surface.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits67Downloads34 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202107.00023 [pdf]

Impacts of climate change and human activities on water resources in the Ebinur Lake Basin, Northwest China

WANG Yuejian; GU Xinchen; YANG Guang; YAO Junqiang; LIAO Na
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Changing climatic conditions and extensive human activities have influenced the global water cycle. In recent years, significant changes in climate and land use have degraded the watershed ecosystem of the Ebinur Lake Basin in Xinjiang, Northwest China. In this paper, variations of runoff, temperature, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, lake area, socio-economic water usage, groundwater level and water quality in the Ebinur Lake Basin from 1961 to 2015 were systematically analyzed by the Mann-Kendall test methods (M-K) mutation test, the cumulative levelling method, the climate-sensitive method and land-use change index. In addition, we evaluated the effects of human activities on land use change and water quality. The results reveal that there was a significant increase in temperature and precipitation from 1961 to 2015, despite a decrease in reference evapotranspiration. The Wenquan station was not significantly affected by human activities as it is situated at a higher altitude. Runoff at this station increased significantly with climate warming. In contrast, runoff at the Jinghe station was severely affected by numerous human activities. Runoff decreased without obvious fluctuations. The contributions of climate change to runoff variation at the Jinghe and Wenquan stations were 46.87% and 58.94%, respectively; and the contributions of human activities were 53.13% and 41.06%, respectively. Land-use patterns in the basin have changed significantly between 1990 and 2015: urban and rural constructed lands, saline-alkali land, bare land, cultivated land, and forest land have expanded, while areas under grassland, lake, ice/snow and river/channel have declined. Human activities have dramatically intensified land degradation and desertification. From 1961 to 2015, both the inflow into the Ebinur Lake and the area of the lake have declined year by year; groundwater levels have dropped significantly, and the water quality has deteriorated during the study period. In the oasis irrigation area below the runoff pass, human activities mainly influenced the utilization mode and quantity of water resources. Changes in the hydrology and quantity of water resources were driven primarily by the continuous expansion of cultivated land and oasis, as well as the growth of population and the construction of hydraulic engineering projects. After 2015, the effects of some ecological protection projects were observed. However, there was no obvious sign of ecological improvement in the basin, and some environmental problems continue to persist. On this basis, this study recommends that the expansion of oasis should be limited according to the carrying capacity of the local water bodies. Moreover, in order to ensure the ecological security of the basin, it is necessary to determine the optimal oasis area for sustainable development and improve the efficiency of water resources exploitation and utilization.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits67Downloads32 Comment 0

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