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1. chinaXiv:201605.01809 [pdf]

BMP2-SMAD Signaling Represses the Proliferation of Embryonic Neural Stem Cells through YAP

Yao, Minghui; Wang, Yadong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Zengqiang; Yao, Minghui; Xu, Zhiheng; Jiao, Jianwei; Wang, Yadong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Neurosciences

Previous studies have shown that the Hippo pathway effector yes-associated protein (YAP) plays an important role in maintaining stem cell proliferation. However, the precise molecular mechanism of YAP in regulating murine embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) remains largely unknown. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) treatment inhibited the proliferation of mouse embryonic NSCs, that YAP was critical for mouse NSC proliferation, and that BMP2 treatment-induced inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation was abrogated by YAP knockdown, indicating that the YAP protein mediates the inhibitory effect of BMP2 signaling. Additionally, we found that BMP2 treatment reduced YAP nuclear translocation, YAP-TEAD interaction, and YAP-mediated transactivation. BMP2 treatment inhibited YAP/TEAD-mediated Cyclin D1 (ccnd1) expression, and knockdown of ccnd1 abrogated the BMP2-mediated inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation. Mechanistically, we found that Smad1/4, effectors of BMP2 signaling, competed with YAP for the interaction with TAED1 and inhibited YAP's cotranscriptional activity. Our data reveal mechanistic cross talk between BMP2 signaling and the Hippo-YAP pathway in murine NSC proliferation, which may be exploited as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.

submitted time 2016-06-06 Hits3885Downloads1668 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01739 [pdf]

Insulin-InsR signaling drives multipotent progenitor differentiation toward lymphoid lineages

Xia, Pengyan; Wang, Shuo; Du, Ying; Huang, Guanling; Fan, Zusen; Huang, Guanling; Satoh, Takashi; Akira, Shizuo
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Immunology

The lineage commitment of HSCs generates balanced myeloid and lymphoid populations in hematopoiesis. However, the underlying mechanisms that control this process remain largely unknown. Here, we show that insulin-insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is required for lineage commitment of multipotent progenitors (MPPs). Deletion of Insr in murine bone marrow causes skewed differentiation of MPPs to myeloid cells. mTOR acts as a downstream effector that modulates MPP differentiation. mTOR activates Stat3 by phosphorylation at serine 727 under insulin stimulation, which binds to the promoter of Ikaros, leading to its transcription priming. Our findings reveal that the insulin-InsR signaling drives MPP differentiation into lymphoid lineages in early lymphopoiesis, which is essential for maintaining a balanced immune system for an individual organism.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits2860Downloads1484 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201605.01738 [pdf]

Crystal structure of cyclic nucleotide-binding-like protein from Brucella abortus

He, Zheng; Gao, Yuan; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Xuejun C.; He, Zheng; Dong, Jing; Ke, Yuehua; Chen, Zeliang
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

The cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB)-like protein (CNB-L) from Brucella abortus shares sequence homology with CNB domain-containing proteins. We determined the crystal structure of CNB-L at 2.0 angstrom resolution in the absence of its C-terminal helix and nucleotide. The 3D structure of CNB-L is in a twofold symmetric form. Each protomer shows high structure similarity to that of cGMP-binding domain-containing proteins, and likely mimics their nucleotide-free conformation. A key residue, Glu17, mediates the dimerization and prevents binding of cNMP to the canonical ligand-pocket. The structurally observed dimer of CNB-L is stable in solution, and thus is likely to be biologically relevant. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

submitted time 2016-05-15 Hits10551Downloads1666 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201605.01531 [pdf]

Defining the Role of Tyrosine and Rational Tuning of Oxidase Activity by Genetic Incorporation of Unnatural Tyrosine Analogs

Lv, Xiaoxuan; Li, Jiasong; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jiangyun; Lv, Xiaoxuan; Li, Jiasong; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jiangyun; Yu, Yang; Lu, Yi; Cui, Chang; Mukherjee, Arnab; Lu, Yi; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi; Nilges, Mark J.
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

While a conserved tyrosine (Tyr) is found in oxidases, the roles of phenol ring pK(a) and reduction potential in O-2 reduction have not been defined despite many years of research on numerous oxidases and their models. These issues represent major challenges in our understanding of O-2 reduction mechanism in bioenergetics. Through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acid analogs of Tyr, with progressively decreasing pKa of the phenol ring and increasing reduction potential, in the active site of a functional model of oxidase in myoglobin, a linear dependence of both the O-2 reduction activity and the fraction of H2O formation with the pKa of the phenol ring has been established. By using these unnatural amino acids as spectroscopic probe, we have provided conclusive evidence for the location of a Tyr radical generated during reaction with H2O2, by the distinctive hyperfine splitting patterns of the halogenated tyrosines and one of its deuterated derivatives incorporated at the 33 position of the protein. These results demonstrate for the first time that enhancing the proton donation ability of the Tyr enhances the oxidase activity, allowing the Tyr analogs to augment enzymatic activity beyond that of natural Tyr.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2225Downloads1256 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01523 [pdf]

Quantitative analysis of vesicle recycling at the calyx of Held synapse

Qiu, Xufeng; Zhu, Qianwen; Sun, Jianyuan; Qiu, Xufeng; Zhu, Qianwen; Sun, Jianyuan; Sun, Jianyuan
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Vesicle recycling is pivotal for maintaining reliable synaptic signaling, but its basic properties remain poorly understood. Here, we developed an approach to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of vesicle recycling with exquisite signal and temporal resolution at the calyx of Held synapse. The combination of this electrophysiological approach with electron microscopy revealed that similar to 80% of vesicles (similar to 270,000 out of similar to 330,000) in the nerve terminal are involved in recycling. Under sustained stimulation, recycled vesicles start to be reused in tens of seconds when similar to 47% of the preserved vesicles in the recycling pool (RP) are depleted. The heterogeneity of vesicle recycling as well as two kinetic components of RP depletion revealed the existence of a replenishable pool of vesicles before the priming stage and led to a realistic kinetic model that assesses the size of the subpools of the RP. Thus, our study quantified the kinetics of vesicle recycling and kinetically dissected the whole vesicle pool in the calyceal terminal into the readily releasable pool (similar to 0.6%), the readily priming pool (similar to 46%), the premature pool (similar to 33%), and the resting pool (similar to 20%).

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2146Downloads1228 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01519 [pdf]

Biochemical and structural characterization of a novel ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 from Agrocybe aegeria reveals Ube2w family-specific properties

Qi, Chao; Li, De-Feng; Feng, Lei; Hou, Yanjie; Wang, Da-Cheng; Qi, Chao; Sun, Hui; Liu, Wei
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that is involved in myriad cellar regulation and disease pathways. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) is an important player in the ubiquitin transfer pathway. Although many E2 structures are available, not all E2 families have known structures, and three-dimensional structures from fungal organisms other than yeast are lacking. We report here the crystal structure of UbcA1, which is a novel ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme identified from the edible and medicinal mushroom Agrocybe aegerita and displays potential antitumor properties. The protein belongs to the Ube2w family and shows similar biochemical characteristics to human Ube2w, including monomer-dimer equilibrium in solution, alpha-NH2 ubiquitin-transfer activity and a mechanism to recognize backbone atoms of intrinsically disordered N-termini in substrates. Its structure displays a unique C-terminal conformation with an orientation of helix alpha 3 that is completely different from the reported E2 structures but similar to a recently reported NMR ensemble of Ube2w. A mutagenesis study on this novel enzyme revealed that an intact C-terminus is significant for protein dimerization and enzymatic activity. As the first crystallized full-length protein of this family, UbcA1 may supersede the truncated X-ray structure of Ube2w (PDB entry 2A7L) as the representative structure of the Ube2w family.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2484Downloads1313 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.01517 [pdf]

Ribosylation triggering Alzheimer's disease-like Tau hyperphosphorylation via activation of CaMKII

Wei, Yan; Han, Chanshuai; Wang, Yujing; Wu, Beibei; Su, Tao; Liu, Ying; He, Rongqiao; Wang, Yujing; Wu, Beibei; Liu, Ying; He, Rongqiao
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Cell Biology

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is regarded as one of the serious risk factors for age-related cognitive impairment; however, a causal link between these two diseases has so far not been established. It was recently discovered that, apart from high D-glucose levels, T2DM patients also display abnormally high concentrations of uric D-ribose. Here, we show for the first time that the administration of D-ribose, the most active glycator among monosaccharides, produces high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and, importantly, triggers hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the brain of C57BL/6 mouse and neuroblastoma N2a cells. However, the administration of D-glucose showed no significant changes in Tau phosphorylation under the same experimental conditions. Crucially, suppression of AGE formation using an AGEs inhibitor (aminoguanidine) effectively prevents hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein. Further study shows AGEs resulted from ribosylation activate calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII), a key kinase responsible for Tau hyperphosphorylation. These data suggest that there is indeed a mechanistic link between ribosylation and Tau hyperphosphorylation. Targeting ribosylation by inhibiting AGE formation may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent Alzheimer's disease-like Tau hyperphosphorylation and diabetic encephalopathies.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2763Downloads1670 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.01513 [pdf]

Evolutionarily Conserved Binding of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein to Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1B

Wu, Huiwen; Gong, Weibin; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Yao, Xingzhe; Feng, Yingang; Yao, Xingzhe; Feng, Yingang; Wu, Huiwen; Yao, Xingzhe
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is an abundant protein that is highly conserved in eukaryotes. However, its primary function is still not clear. Human TCTP interacts with the metazoan-specific eukaryotic elongation factor 1B delta (eEF1B delta) and inhibits its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity, but the structural mechanism remains unknown. The interaction between TCTP and eEF1B delta was investigated by NMR titration, structure determination, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, site-directed mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and HADDOCK docking. We first demonstrated that the catalytic GEF domain of eEF1B delta is not responsible for binding to TCTP but rather a previously unnoticed central acidic region (CAR) domain in eEF1B delta. The mutagenesis data and the structural model of the TCTP-eEF1B delta CAR domain complex revealed the key binding residues. These residues are highly conserved in eukaryotic TCTPs and in eEF1B GEFs, including the eukaryotically conserved eEF1B delta, implying the interaction may be conserved in all eukaryotes. Interactions were confirmed between TCTP and the eEF1B delta CAR domain for human, fission yeast, and unicellular photosynthetic microalgal proteins, suggesting that involvement in protein translation through the conserved interaction with eEF1B represents a primary function of TCTP.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits8192Downloads1159 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.01497 [pdf]

The hepatitis C virus protein NS3 suppresses TNF-alpha-stimulated activation of NF-kappa B by targeting LUBAC

Chen, Yongzhi; He, Liang; Peng, Yanan; Shi, Xiaodong; Cheng, Genhong; Deng, Hongyu; Chen, Yongzhi; He, Liang; Peng, Yanan; Chen, Jizheng; Chen, Xinwen; Zhong, Jin; Cheng, Genhong;
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

The transcription factor nuclear factor kB (NF-kappa B) is crucial for innate immune defense against viral infections, and its activation requires the ubiquitylation of upstream proteins, including the adaptor protein NEMO (NF-kappa B essential modulator). Many infectious pathogens, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), inhibit NF-kappa B signaling in host cells, which promotes pathogen survival. Frequently, HCV-infected individuals develop a chronic infection, which suggests that HCV can subvert host antiviral responses. We found that HCV infection and replication inhibited the activation of NF-kappa B by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which was mediated by the viral protein NS3 and, to a lesser extent, NS5B. NS3 directly interacted with linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), competed with NEMO for binding to LUBAC, and inhibited the LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitylation of NEMO and the subsequent activation of NF-kappa B. Together, our results highlight an immune evasion strategy adopted by HCV to modulate host antiviral responses and enhance virus survival and persistence.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2036Downloads1163 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201605.01494 [pdf]

Identification of VEGFR2-Binding Peptides Using High Throughput Bacterial Display Methods and Functional Assessment

Pu, Kefeng; Yuan, Lihua; Chen, Lisha; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Xuan; Zhu, Yimin; Pu, Kefeng; Chen, Lisha; Wang, Anxin; Pu, Kefeng; Chen, Lisha; Wang, Anxin; Zhang, Hailu
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Oncology

The signal transduction pathway initiated by vascular endothelial growth factor-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-VEGFR2) plays an important role in the angiogenesis of tumors. The effective antagonists of VEGFR2 would behave as potent drugs for the treatment of malignant cancers. In our study, specific binding peptides with high affinity to VEGFR2 were obtained through bacterial display technology. Conserved motif (FF/YEXWGVK) among those peptide sequences was discovered. One of the selected peptides, VRBP1 (YDGNSFYEMWGVKPASES) was identified by screening the biased bacterial peptide library and its physiochemical feature was further characterized. The results of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay indicated that the dissociation constant (K-D) value of VRBP1 was 228.3 nM and this peptide competed with VEGF binding to VEGFR2. Particles conjugated with VRBP1 could recognize the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) which express VEGFR2 on the surface. Further therapeutic effect of VRBP1 was examined by in vivo experiments. VRBP1 could result in a significant decrease in tumor size of H460 xenografts. The results from the immunohistochemical assay showed that CD31 positive signals in VRBP1-treated group were fewer than those in the control ones. These data highlighted the potential of VEGFR2-binding peptides as effective molecules for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits3925Downloads1672 Comment 0

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