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1. chinaXiv:202109.00022 [pdf]

乌鲁木齐市生态环境遥感评价及驱动因子分析

排日海·合力力
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

生态环境质量评估对于区域社会经济的可持续发展至关重要。以新疆乌鲁木齐市为研究区,通过对2000年、2010年和2019年3期Landsat系列数据进行预处理,利用主成分分析法构建遥感生态指数(Remote Sensing Eco?logical Index, RSEI),使用地理探测器中单因子分析和多因子交互作用分析法对RSEI的8个影响因子(人口密度、土地利用类型、海拔高度、经济密度、绿度、湿度、热度和干度)进行影响程度的定量探测,进而揭示出影响研究区生态环境质量的主导因素。结果表明:(1)2000年、2010年和2019年乌鲁木齐市RSEI均值分别为0.21、0.21、0.23呈增加趋势,研究期内乌鲁木齐市生态变好的面积大于变差的面积,说明乌鲁木齐市的生态环境质量处于转好的状态;(2)近20 a研究区8个影响因子中单因子热度指标对RSEI的空间分异特征解释力最强;(3)研究区生态环境的空间分布特征是多种影响因子共同交互作用的结果,在考虑多因子交互作用情景下人口密度,绿度指标和干度指标是区域生态环境质量状况的主要影响因素和关键驱动力。评价区域生态环境质量,了解生态环境状况及掌握其变化规律,不仅有利于促进区域经济可持续发展,而且对于城市生态文明建设具有重要的现实意义和参考价值。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits2421Downloads36 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202109.00024 [pdf]

哈萨克斯坦首都努尔苏丹人工林健康评价

闫晋升
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

通过分析努尔苏丹不同人工林,筛选健康综合评价指标,建立健康综合评价模型,为努尔苏丹及其周边人工林提供健康综合评价理论基础。调查努尔苏丹25块人工林样地和2块天然林样地,选取林下植物Shannon-Wie?ner指数(X1)、Pielou指数(X2)、Simpson指数(X3)、林分空间综合结构综合指数(X4)、土壤有机质(X5)、全氮(X6)、全磷(X7)、pH(X8)、质量含水量(X9)、林木平均株高(X10)、平均胸径(X11)、平均枝下高(X12)、平均冠幅(X13)和林下更新(X14)共14个指标,采用因子分析、聚类分析、判别分析和逐步回归分析等多元统计分析法,对努尔苏丹人工林健康状况开展综合评价。通过因子分析将14个单项指标转换为4个相互独立的综合指标,其贡献率分别为30.482%、24.374%、19.711%和8.646%,代表了全部数据83.212%的信息量。结合因子得分系数矩阵与各因子权重得到健康综合得分值。对健康综合得分值进行聚类分析,将选择的样地划分为5类,优质健康(Ⅰ)、良好健康(Ⅱ)、一般健康(Ⅲ)、亚健康(Ⅳ)和不健康(Ⅴ)。使用判别分析验证聚类分析的效果,其自身验证与交叉验证的准确率分别为100%、85.185%。采取逐步回归分析建立努尔苏丹人工林健康评价最优数学模型,H= 0 + 0.293X13 +0.186X5 + 0.079X3 + 0.100X2 + 0.038X7(R2=0.987),筛选出5个判断人工林健康状况的指标,分别为平均冠幅、土壤有机质、Simpson指数、Pielou指数和土壤全磷。平均冠幅、土壤有机质、Simpson指数、Pielou指数和土壤全磷可作为判断努尔苏丹人工林健康状况的指标,可在相同条件下测定这5项指标,计算健康综合评价值并预测其健康状况。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits53Downloads28 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202109.00025 [pdf]

基于VSD的近20 a 来浑善达克沙地生态脆弱性变化研究

陈臻琦
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

如何协调区域社会经济和人口、资源环境发展,已成为生态环境建设面临的紧迫任务,识别特定地区的脆弱性则是实现有效生态系统管理的前提。以京津风沙源——浑善达克沙地为研究区,采用“暴露-敏感-适应”(VSD)模型建立评价指标体系,结合Moran’s I 指数与主成分分析,对2000—2019年该沙地生态脆弱性进行评价和驱动机制分析。结果表明:浑善达克沙地生态脆弱性20 a间呈现增加的趋势;其生态脆弱性空间上呈集聚现象,表现为西部高-高聚集、东部低-低聚集的分布格局,且具有明显的空间相关性;生态脆弱性的时空分布的异质性是由不同程度的人类活动与气候因素的叠加效应造成的。该研究为浑善达克沙地的生态建设和生态恢复提供理论依据,并提出因地制宜的治理建议和措施。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits50Downloads17 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202109.00026 [pdf]

巴尔喀什湖流域土地利用/覆被变化过程与趋势

刘婉如
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

巴尔喀什湖流域是跨越中国新疆(境内)和哈萨克斯坦(境外)的重要流域。利用1970s、2005年和2015年3期土地利用/土地覆被(Land Use and Land Cover, LULC)数据与马尔科夫模型等方法,分析1972年流域内最大的水利工程卡普恰盖水库建成和前苏联解体以来流域LULC变化过程和趋势,并对比流域境内外差异,为该地区土地资源管理及生态环境保护提供依据。结果表明:巴尔喀什湖流域LULC变化呈现出耕地和林地面积先减后增(总体增加)、水域和未利用地面积先增后减(总体减少)、草地和城乡建设用地面积持续增加的变化趋势。这表明后期LULC变化对整个研究期LULC变化影响更大。以上变化以双向转换为主,因此,整个研究期内全流域变化过程始终处于平衡状态。境内外LULC类型结构和变化过程均不相同,境内分配比境外均匀,单一类型和区域LULC变化趋势与状态指数均表明境内LULC类型变化过程比境外稳定,但由于境外面积占全流域86%,主导了全流域LULC类型结构和变化过程。全流域在研究期内始终处于平衡状态。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits50Downloads24 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202109.00028 [pdf]

基于多源遥感数据的温度-土壤湿度-降水干旱指数(TMPDI)的构建与应用

满元伟
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

干旱在全球范围内产生了深远的社会和经济影响,可靠的干旱监测对防旱抗旱工作具有重要指导意义。由于在植被覆盖度和农作物种植率较低区域使用植被状态或单因子进行干旱监测时精度较低,故本文采用地表温度(LST)、降水量(P)和土壤湿度(SM)数据,基于三维欧氏几何空间中欧氏距离方法构建了一种新的干旱指数:温度-土壤湿度-降水干旱指数(TMPDI)用于干旱监测。并以甘肃省为研究区,利用SPI、SPEI、遥感数据以及小麦单位面积单产对TMPDI进行验证。结果表明:TMPDI与SPI、SPEI高度相关(R2>0.64),且在干旱监测中兼顾降水量与气温影响的同时,降低了使用降水量或地表温度进行干旱监测的不确定性,提高了土壤湿度在农业干旱监测中的准确性与有效性,能准确地描述干旱事件的时空演变特征,同时也能较好地反映出干旱强度与干旱面积率的变化对小麦产量造成的影响,说明TMPDI在农业干旱监测中具有较高的有效性和可靠性。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits53Downloads35 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202109.00041 [pdf]

阴山北麓荒漠草原干旱气象因子分析

尉迟文思
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

草原是西部生态环境建设的关键部分,其生态系统极易受到破坏。近年来荒漠草原干旱灾害频发,以内蒙古阴山北麓荒漠草原生态水文国家野外科学观测研究站为试验区,通过监测不同坡位的降水变化,分析气象因子与干旱指标PA 值之间的联系与作用,并构建了回归模型。结果表明:(1)阴山北麓荒漠草原不同坡位的降水量为:下坡>中坡>上坡,对应的干旱指数PA 值为:上坡PA>中坡PA>下坡PA。(2)从各时间尺度观测可知:月尺度分析发现各坡位均出现不同程度的干旱现象,干旱频率较高;季尺度分析发现只在冬季出现轻旱现象;年尺度分析发现近5 a该区域未达到干旱阈值。说明该地区年均降水充足,未发生干旱灾害。(3)根据降水量、气温、风速等主要气象因子与干旱指数PA 值构建的多元回归模型为:YPA=78.799+0.255x1-3.395x2-1.831x3,R2为0.994,模型的拟合程度高,可以较好的反应出该区域的干旱情况。为进一步研究多气象因子与各类干旱指标之间的关系,以及构建旱情评价体系提供理论依据。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits24Downloads13 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202109.00054 [pdf]

羌塘高原申扎高寒湿地辐射平衡和地表反照率特征

强耀辉
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

羌塘高原湿地能量交换过程及其作用结果对气候有着重要影响。本研究选择羌塘高原申扎地区典型高寒湿地的辐射平衡观测数据为基础,分析了2018-07—2020-07逐日、逐月、逐时、不同季节典型天气辐射各分量及逐日反照率变化特征。日尺度上,辐射各分量均表现出明显的季节规律,呈“U”型变化。6月向下短波辐射全年最大为301.1 W·m-2,平均温度最高,向上长波辐射也达到最大,为371.5 W·m-2,1月则相反。季节尺度上,短波辐射各季节平均值春季>夏季>秋季>冬季,长波辐射和净辐射则夏季最高,冬季最小。不同天气下,各季节晴天辐射通量较平滑,多云和降水天气变化不规则。地表反照率2018—2020年观测均值为0.23,夏、秋季小,冬、春季大,降雪天气甚至达到了0.63。研究结果可对揭示羌塘高原典型高寒湿地辐射收支的动态变化规律、阐明羌塘高原热力作用对其自身及周边地区的影响提供数据支撑。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits9Downloads7 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202109.00055 [pdf]

基于地理探测器分析青藏高原降水δ18O空间分异特征

席文涛
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

地理探测器是研究地理现象的空间分异性,并且定量分析其驱动因子的一种统计方法。利用地理探测器方法对青藏高原24个站点的降水δ18O年均值进行了分析,该方法可在一定程度上反映青藏高原降水δ18O年均值的空间分异性,得出纬度、海拔、经度和降水量对青藏高原降水δ18O年均值空间分异的解释力分别为0.82、0.71、0.57和0.49,温度对青藏高原降水δ18O年均值空间分异的解释力不显著;因子之间的共同作用增强了降水δ18O年均值在空间上的分异性。讨论了青藏高原站点降水δ18O年均值与纬度、经度、海拔、年降水量和年均温之间的关系,并对降水δ18O主控因子的季节变化进行分析,得出纬度对青藏高原降水δ18O年均值、夏季均值和冬季均值空间分异的解释力均为最强。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits7Downloads6 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202109.00011 [pdf]

Effects of water and nitrogen on growth and relative competitive ability of introduced versus native C4 grass species in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China

DING Wenli; XU Weizhou; GAO Zhijuan; XU Bingcheng
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Switchgrass is an introduced C4 grass in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China, but there is a lack of information to assess its ecological invasive risk. In this study, Old World bluestems (native C4 grass) and switchgrass were sowed at five mixture ratios (8:0, 6:2, 4:4, 2:6 and 0:8) under two soil water levels (80% field capacity (FC) and 40% FC) and two nitrogen (N) treatments (0 and 100 mg N/kg dry soil, termed N0-unfertilized and N1-fertilized treatments, respectively) in a pot experiment in 2012. Biomass, root morphological traits and relative competitive abilities of these two species were analyzed. Results showed that biomass of both species was significantly greater under 80% FC or N fertilization, and switchgrass had a relatively larger root: shoot ratio (RSR). Total root length (TRL) and root surface area (RSA) of switchgrass were significantly higher under 80% FC irrespective of N treatment, while those of Old World bluestems were only significantly higher under N fertilization. N had no significant effect on TRL and RSA of switchgrass, while RSA of Old World bluestems significantly increased under 80% FC and N fertilization. Under 40% FC and N0-unfertilized treatment, the aggressivity of Old World bluestems was larger than zero at 2:6 and 4:4 mixture ratios of two species, whereas it was close to zero at 6:2 mixture ratio. Root competitive ability of switchgrass significantly increased under 80% FC or N fertilization. The aggressivity of Old World bluestems was negative at 6:2 mixture ratio under 80% FC and N fertilization, while it was positive at 2:6 mixture ratio. Switchgrass may become more aggressive when N deposition or rainfall increases, while a proper mixture ratio with appropriate water and N management could help with grassland management in the semi-arid Loess Plateau.

submitted time 2021-09-08 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2486Downloads62 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202109.00012 [pdf]

Spatiotemporal variations of evapotranspiration and reference crop water requirement over 1957–2016 in Iran based on CRU TS gridded dataset

Brian COLLINS; Hadi RAMEZANI ETEDALI; Ameneh TAVAKOL; Abbas KAVIANI
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Agriculture needs to produce more food to feed the growing population in the 21st century. It makes the reference crop water requirement (WREQ) a major challenge especially in regions with limited water and high water demand. Iran, with large climatic variability, is experiencing a serious water crisis due to limited water resources and inefficient agriculture. In order to overcome the issue of uneven distribution of weather stations, gridded Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data was applied to analyze the changes in potential evapotranspiration (PET), effective precipitation (EFFPRE) and WREQ. Validation of data using in situ observation showed an acceptable performance of CRU in Iran. Changes in PET, EFFPRE and WREQ were analyzed in two 30-a periods 1957–1986 and 1987–2016. Comparing two periods showed an increase in PET and WREQ in regions extended from the southwest to northeast and a decrease in the southeast, more significant in summer and spring. However, EFFPRE decreased in the southeast, northeast, and northwest, especially in winter and spring. Analysis of annual trends revealed an upward trend in PET (14.32 mm/decade) and WREQ (25.50 mm/decade), but a downward trend in EFFPRE (–11.8 mm/decade) over the second period. Changes in PET, EFFPRE and WREQ in winter have the impact on the annual trend. Among climate variables, WREQ showed a significant correlation (r=0.59) with minimum temperature. The increase in WREQ and decrease in EFFPRE would exacerbate the agricultural water crisis in Iran. With all changes in PET and WREQ, immediate actions are needed to address the challenges in agriculture and adapt to the changing climate.

submitted time 2021-09-08 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2583Downloads72 Comment 0

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