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1. chinaXiv:201605.01804 [pdf]

An Iron-Containing Dodecameric Heptosyltransferase Family Modifies Bacterial Autotransporters in Pathogenesis

Lu, Qiuhe; Yao, Qing; Xu, Yue; Li, Lin; Li, Shan; Gao, Wenqing; Niu, Miao; Chen, She; Shao, Feng; Xu, Yue; Liu, Yanhua; Liu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yanhua; Liu, Xiaoyun; Sharon, Michal; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Zamyatina, Alla; Shao, Feng; Shao, Feng
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Autotransporters deliver virulence factors to the bacterial surface by translocating an effector passenger domain through a membrane-anchored barrel structure. Although passenger domains are diverse, those found in enteric bacteria autotransporters, including AIDA-I in diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) and TibA in enterotoxigenic E. coli, are commonly glycosylated. We show that AIDA-I is heptosylated within the bacterial cytoplasm by autotransporter adhesin heptosyltransferase (AAH) and its paralogue AAH2. AIDA-I heptosylation determines DAEC adhesion to host cells. AAH/AAH2 define a bacterial autotransporter heptosyltransferase (BAHT) family that contains ferric ion and adopts a dodecamer assembly. Structural analyses of the heptosylated TibA passenger domain reveal 35 heptose conjugates forming patterned and solenoid-like arrays on the surface of a beta helix. Additionally, CARC, the AIDA-like autotransporter from Citrobacter rodentium, is essential for colonization in mice and requires heptosylation by its cognate BAHT. Our study establishes a bacterial glycosylation system that regulates virulence and is essential for pathogenesis.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits3579Downloads1638 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01481 [pdf]

LSY-2 is essential for maintaining the germ-soma distinction in C-elegans

Lin, Long; Lin, Long; Yan, Libo; Zhao, Yu; Lin, Long; Li, Yuping; Zhang, Gangming; Zhang, Hong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Cell Biology

The mechanisms that specify and maintain the characteristics of germ cells during animal development are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that loss of function of the zinc-finger gene lsy-2 results in various somatic cells adopting germ cells characteristics, including expression of germline-specific P granules, enhanced RNAi activity and transgene silencing. The soma to germ transformation in lsy-2 mutants requires the activities of multiple chromatin remodeling complexes, including the MES-4 complex and the ISW-1 complex. The distinct germline-specific features in somatic cells and the gene expression profile indicate that LSY-2 acts in the Mec complex in this process. Our study demonstrated that lsy-2 functions in the maintenance of the soma-germ distinction.

submitted time 2016-05-12 Hits2555Downloads1450 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201605.01353 [pdf]

Dimerization Mediated by a Divergent Forkhead-associated Domain Is Essential for the DNA Damage and Spindle Functions of Fission Yeast Mdb1

Luo, Shukun; Xin, Xiaoran; Du, Li-Lin; Ye, Keqiong; Wei, Yi; Ye, Keqiong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

MDC1 is a key factor of DNA damage response in mammalian cells. It possesses two phospho-binding domains. In its C terminus, a tandem BRCA1 C-terminal domain binds phosphorylated histone H2AX, and in its N terminus, a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain mediates a phosphorylation-enhanced homodimerization. The FHA domain of the Drosophila homolog of MDC1, MU2, also forms a homodimer but utilizes a different dimer interface. The functional importance of the dimerization of MDC1 family proteins is uncertain. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a protein sharing homology with MDC1 in the tandem BRCA1 C-terminal domain, Mdb1, regulates DNA damage response and mitotic spindle functions. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal 91 amino acids of Mdb1. Despite a lack of obvious sequence conservation to the FHA domain of MDC1, this region of Mdb1 adopts an FHA-like fold and is therefore termed Mdb1-FHA. Unlike canonical FHA domains, Mdb1-FHA lacks all the conserved phospho-binding residues. It forms a stable homodimer through an interface distinct from those of MDC1 and MU2. Mdb1-FHA is important for the localization of Mdb1 to DNA damage sites and the spindle midzone, contributes to the roles of Mdb1 in cellular responses to genotoxins and an antimicrotubule drug, and promotes in vitro binding of Mdb1 to a phospho-H2A peptide. The defects caused by the loss of Mdb1-FHA can be rescued by fusion with either of two heterologous dimerization domains, suggesting that the main function of Mdb1-FHA is mediating dimerization. Our data support that FHA-mediated dimerization is conserved for MDC1 family proteins.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits1689Downloads812 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201605.01336 [pdf]

Non-canonical activation of inflammatory caspases by cytosolic LPS in innate immunity

Yang, Jieling; Shao, Feng; Yang, Jieling; Zhao, Yue; Shao, Feng
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Immunology

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of Gram-negative bacteria cell wall. In innate immunity, extracellular LPS is recognized by Toll-like receptor 4 to stimulate cytokine transcription. Recent studies suggest a 'non-canonical inflammasome' that senses cytoplasmic LPS and activates caspase-11 in mouse macrophages. Unexpectedly, biochemical studies reveal that caspase-11 and its human orthologs caspase-4/caspase-5 are LPS receptors themselves. Direct LPS binding induces caspase-4/caspase-5/caspase-11 oligomerization and activation, triggering cell pyroptosis and anti-bacterial defenses. Caspase-4/caspase-5/caspase-11 recognition of intracellular LPS requires bacterial escape from the vacuole; this process is promoted by interferon-inducible GTPases-mediated lysis of the bacteria-containing vacuole. Non-canonical activation of these inflammatory caspases by LPS not only represents a new paradigm in innate immunity but also critically determines LPS-induced septic shock in mice.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits2486Downloads1240 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01325 [pdf]

Cleavage of GSDMD by inflammatory caspases determines pyroptotic cell death

Shi, Jianjin; Shi, Jianjin; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Kun; Shi, Xuyan; Wang, Yue; Huang, Huanwei; Zhuang, Yinghua; Cai, Tao; Wang, Fengchao; Shao, Feng; Shao, Feng; Shao, Feng
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Inflammatory caspases (caspase-1, -4, -5 and -11) are critical for innate defences. Caspase-1 is activated by ligands of various canonical inflammasomes, and caspase-4, -5 and -11 directly recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide, both of which trigger pyroptosis. Despite the crucial role in immunity and endotoxic shock, the mechanism for pyroptosis induction by inflammatory caspases is unknown. Here we identify gasdermin D (Gsdmd) by genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease screens of caspase-11- and caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis in mouse bone marrow macrophages. GSDMD-deficient cells resisted the induction of pyroptosis by cytosolic lipopolysaccharide and known canonical inflammasome ligands. Interleukin-1 beta release was also diminished in Gsdmd(-/-) cells, despite intact processing by caspase-1. Caspase-1 and caspase-4/5/11 specifically cleaved the linker between the amino-terminal gasdermin-N and carboxy-terminal gasdermin-C domains in GSDMD, which was required and sufficient for pyroptosis. The cleavage released the intramolecular inhibition on the gasdermin-N domain that showed intrinsic pyroptosis-inducing activity. Other gasdermin family members were not cleaved by inflammatory caspases but shared the autoinhibition; gain-of-function mutations in Gsdma3 that cause alopecia and skin defects disrupted the autoinhibition, allowing its gasdermin-N domain to trigger pyroptosis. These findings offer insight into inflammasome-mediated immunity/diseases and also change our understanding of pyroptosis and programmed necrosis.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits2344Downloads1680 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01291 [pdf]

Recognition of H3K9 methylation by GLP is required for efficient establishment of H3K9 methylation, rapid target gene repression, and mouse viability

Liu, Nan; Liu, Nan; Jiang, Yonghua; Meng, Lingjun; Xiong, Jun; Zhao, Zuodong; Zhou, Xiaohua; Li, Jia; Li, Hong; Zheng, Yong; Chen, She; Cai, Tao; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Nan; Zhu, Bing; Wu, Hui; Gao, Shaorong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Cell Biology

GLP and G9a are major H3K9 dimethylases and are essential for mouse early embryonic development. GLP and G9a both harbor ankyrin repeat domains that are capable of binding H3K9 methylation. However, the functional significance of their recognition of H3K9 methylation is unknown. Here, we report that the histone methyltransferase activities of GLP and G9a are stimulated by neighboring nucleosomes that are premethylated at H3K9. These stimulation events function in cis and are dependent on the H3K9 methylation binding activities of ankyrin repeat domains of GLP and G9a. Disruption of the H3K9 methylation-binding activity of GLP in mice causes growth retardation of embryos, ossification defects of calvaria, and postnatal lethality due to starvation of the pups. In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) harboring a mutant GLP that lacks H3K9me1-binding activity, critical pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, display inefficient establishment of H3K9me2 and delayed gene silencing during differentiation. Collectively, our study reveals a new activationmechanism for GLP and G9a that plays an important role in ESC differentiation and mouse viability.

submitted time 2016-05-11 Hits1614Downloads968 Comment 0

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