Current Location:home > Browse

Authors

Institution

Your conditions: Geology(66)

1. chinaXiv:202108.00077 [pdf]

玛曲高寒草甸风沙环境与沙化类型研究

安志山
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

玛曲县高寒草甸沙化是青藏高原地区发生沙化的典型案例,其成因、趋势和治理一直受到极大关注。利用三维激光扫描仪,结合野外监测和室内分析等方法,揭示了区域风沙环境,结合区域沉积物粒度与形态特征,依据沙物质来源复杂程度将沙化类型划分为风蚀坑沙化类型和复杂沙化类型。结果表明:区域全年输沙势为164.34VU,合成输沙势为91.57 VU,合成输沙方向132.37°,风向变率0.56,属于中比率低风能环境。综合风蚀坑沙化类型周边风蚀坑与积沙区的长度比、体积比、长轴线、与区域主风向吻合程度及沉积物粒度特征,可知风蚀坑是该沙化类型区域积沙的主要贡献者。在现代沙化过程中,复杂沙化类型除周边风蚀区、活化沙丘以及沙化草地等为区域积沙贡献沙物质外,黄河河道也为区域积沙提供一定量的沙物质。

submitted time 2021-08-12 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits52Downloads36 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202106.00106 [pdf]

A fragment of Argoland from East Gondwana in the NE Himalaya

Ji’en Zhang; Wenjiao Xiao; John Wakabayashi; Brian F Windley; Chunming Han
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Previous studies have concluded that a Trans-Tethyan oceanic subduction zone existed prior collision of India-Eurasian plates, between which the ocean lacked intervening continental slivers. In contrast, we present first geological evidence of Early Cretaceous shortening and Late Jurassic alkali magmatism constraining that the Longzi block, an extensive (>450 km E-W by ca. 130 km N-S) tract of the NE Himalaya is such a continental sliver. The Longzi block records overturned south-vergent folds in Triassic to Lower Cretaceous strata intruded by 136-123 Ma mafic, dioritic, and dacite dikes, constraining Early Cretaceous shortening. The shortening demonstrates the NE Himalayan locating in a compressional setting, rather than an extensional Indian passive continental margin at that time. Triassic strata of NW Australian affinity and Late Jurassic rocks sourced from north India record pre-rifting history. Rifting evidence includes 152.8 Ma alkali intrusive rocks, a Late Jurassic unconformity, and rapid changes in sediment thickness and apparent water depth of deposition recorded in Upper Jurassic strata. The rifting event is coeval with 152-155 Ma oceanic crust in the NE Indian Ocean and a Late Jurassic submarine escarpment with 1200 m of sediments offshore of NW Australia. These data may reflect rifting of the westernmost Argoland continent in NE Himalaya from East Gondwana, followed by collision with a N-dipping Trans-Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zone in the Early Cretaceous, long before terminal continent-continent collision. The Mesozoic rifting-collision in the Himalayan region unambiguously presents archipelagic paleogeography in eastern Neotethyan, which underwent Cenozoic two-stage Indian-Eurasian collisional processes.

submitted time 2021-06-24 Hits3837Downloads319 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201907.00003 [pdf]

Sub-parallel ridge-trench interaction and an alternative model for the Silurian-Devonian archipelago in Western Junggar and North-Central Tianshan in NW China

Zhang, Ji'en; Chen, Yichao; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wakabayashi, John; Windley, Brian F.; Yin, Jiyuan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Plate boundary evolution and interpreted paleogeography commonly involve the interaction between oceanic ridges and trenches. Western Junggar and Central-North Tianshan, NW China, have previously been regarded as independent orogens, but this model was challenged by the discovery of their similar tropic-subtropic coral assemblages and of Precambrian and Early Paleozoic clasts transmitted from the Central Tianshan in Early to Middle Paleozoic sediments in SW Junggar, suggesting they had been in contact by then. The presence of Late Silurian-Early Devonian adakitic rocks in northern SW Junggar was explained by slab roll-back, which required an active subducting slab in SW Junggar. However, this model is inconsistent with the cessation of arc magmatism immediately after the adakitic magmatism indicating there was no subduction in SW Junggar at those times. By re-evaluating the relevance of four diagnostic features of modern Californian ridge subduction, we propose a new model to explain the Late Silurian-Early Devonian orogenic framework of NW China in terms of sub-parallel ridge-trench interaction. The transmitted clasts from Central Tianshan in Early Paleozoic sediments in SW Junggar, at the same time as the Late Ordovician and Middle Silurian coral assemblages, and the complementary accretionary complex in SW Junggar and magmatic arc in Central Tianshan, are all contributary evidence for an Early Paleozoic subduction system. This subduction zone was intruded by two 446-380 Ma double magmatic belts: 1. A ridge subduction-generated adakitic gabbro-basalt-andesite-diorite-granite-rhyolite suite that intruded a 504-446 Ma accretionary complex in SW Junggar, and 2. a magmatic arc in Central Tianshan. A buoyant subducting ridge rifted and separated these magmatic belts resulting in the opening of a new 414-325 Ma ocean, which is preserved in OIB- and MORB-type ophiolites in SW Junggar and North Tianshan. These geological and geochemical relationships resemble those generated by oceanic spreading in the modern Gulf of California, which led to separation of magmatic belts in Baja California and mainland Mexico. The new ocean split the Central Tianshan magmatic arc from the Early Paleozoic Mt. Xiemisitai-Barleik-Mayile accretionary complex in SW Junggar, which changed to a new passive continental margin that led to deposition of Devonian shallow marine-terrestrial sediments, and to cessation of magmatism at 379-349 Ma. These features, including the Middle Paleozoic orogenic architecture and the geochemical properties of specific magmatic rocks, indicate the development of a Late Silurian-Early Devonian sub-parallel-to-trench ridge subduction. This model not only interprets phenomena mentioned in the above earlier models, but also reconciles unresolved spatial relationships between Western Junggar and the Tianshan. Subsequent closure of the new ocean and subduction of its ridge in the Late Paleozoic gave rise to the archipelagic framework that we see today in NW China. An analysis of worldwide examples of sub-parallel ridge-trench interaction demonstrates that a ridge can undergo multiple episodes of subduction before a terminal ocean closure. In this context our new tectonic model for the western Junggar and Tianshan regions may provide an improved understanding of the structure and evolution of ridge-subduction events in ancient orogenic belts.

submitted time 2021-06-22 Hits7353Downloads1353 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202104.00032 [pdf]

延安地区丹霞地貌类型及发育机制研究

彭小华
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

延安地区丹霞地貌是国内外地貌学界近年来的最新发现和持续关注点。通过对延安地区 丹霞地貌地质遗迹的系统调查和研究发现,该区丹霞地貌景观资源丰富,类型多样,具有较高的观 赏价值和科学研究价值。通过野外考察和岩石样品分析,从地质构造、地层组合、岩性特征和外动 力等方面来探讨延安地区丹霞地貌的发育机制。研究表明:晚白垩世以来,该地区经历多次构造 抬升和新生代以来地壳保持差异升降,区内构造简单,地层产状平缓,但节理、裂隙数量较多,对延 安地区丹霞地貌的发育具有控制作用;延安地区丹霞地貌造景岩层主要为白垩系志丹群洛河组(K1l),为一套干旱气候条件下的红色碎屑岩沉积,沉积环境为沙漠环境,岩层倾角近于水平,为丹 霞地貌的发育提供了较好的物质基础;岩性特征上,延安地区丹霞地貌造景岩层岩石成熟度不高,硬度低易碎,抗侵蚀能力较弱,岩石具有相似的矿物组成及峰值强度分布,其沉积过程经历了较为 复杂的风力作用过程,岩石强度存在差异性,易受到后期外动力作用的改造;外动力方面,季节性 的流水是塑造“沟谷型”丹霞地貌的主要外动力,此外,凹片状和凸片状风化作用以及崩塌作用对 延安丹霞地貌的发育也有重要影响。

submitted time 2021-04-13 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits564Downloads337 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202006.00209 [pdf]

柴达木盆地昆北地区路乐河组/下干柴沟组 泥岩地层地球化学特征及古环境意义

余平辉; 马锦龙
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

柴达木盆地昆北地区位于柴达木盆地西部南区的昆仑山前缘,该地区构造活动频繁,地层完整,是研究古环境和古气候理想地区。本文采集了昆北地区切26井新生界下部泥岩样品,并对其进行了微量元素分析。研究表明:在地层界线附近,路乐河组Cu、U、Cr、Sr元素含量平均值分别为18.34、3.24、141.68、107.10 ppm,下干柴沟组下段为28.17、3.35、192.07、217.05 ppm。下干柴沟组下段微量元素有明显增大趋势,指示沉积环境发生变化。U与陆源碎屑来源指示元素Th相关性差(R2=0.174 5),表明U主要为自生成因,因此其含量的增加可以指示原始沉积水体还原程度的增强。Cr与U表现为弱相关(R2=0.42),表明水体环境的变化对Cr的富集有一定的影响;氧化还原指标U/Th、V/Cr表明研究区古环境为氧化水体沉积环境,U/Th、V/Cr指标在下干柴沟组下段变大表明水体加深,还原性增强。利用Sr/Cu比值变化以及结合化石种属演化等推测地层界线附近古气候经历了干旱-湿润-干旱的旋回变化。

submitted time 2020-06-12 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits1091Downloads689 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202003.00081 [pdf]

滑面粘土FIB-SEM分析

赵宇; 胡良博; 蒋宇; 唐俊峰; 黄栋; 薛华庆; 周尚文
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

本文通过原位分析计算,获得滑面、邻近面特征粘土矿物种类及其相对含量、矿物粒径及孔隙率,实验以清晰可靠的物理图像和测试数据揭示滑面、邻近面矿物成分、结构的空间分布特征和差异,从而揭示土质斜坡破坏、滑面强度降低的物理路径和机制。实验采取新鲜未经后期风化滑带土,用AMICSCAN矿物分析电镜集高分辨场发射扫描电镜、最新一代(第三代)的矿物自动分析软件AMICS(Automatic Mineral Identification and Characterization System,分辨率可达0.5μm像素)和超大面积高分辨成像软件为一体的矿物分析和结构分析系统,依据矿物原子比例的唯一性,在识别矿物种类及其分布情况。其次,利用 FEI 公司的Helios NanoLab-650 聚焦电子束扫描电镜(FIB-SEM)并结合X 射线能谱仪(EDS)/以电镜的高分辨率背散射电子二维图像与能谱仪测得的特征谱相结合,借助Avizo Fire 软件基于能谱的点、线元素扫描图像和每间隔一微米扫描得出500帧聚焦电子束扫描电镜图像结合,可视化重建并计算滑带土的孔隙空间三维分布状态,并通过体积比近似折算成含量比,为揭示滑面形成路径和机理提供真实、准确可靠的证据。实验显示:1)微米尺度上,滑面、邻近面之间可见明显的分界,滑面厚度不均匀,在10纳米分辨率的背散射图像上,滑面结构致密孔隙小且较难分辨;2) 宽17微米,高19微米的立方体扫描切割3维立体滑带土样中,滑面部分孔隙率0.0331,邻近面部分孔隙率0.0754,邻近面孔隙率约为滑面的2.3倍;3)能谱仪特征谱图像和数据显示,滑面上蒙脱石特征元素Na、Ca、Mg峰明显,并且在分界线附近出现跳水式的陡降,证明滑面上蒙脱石富集,而邻近面却未检出蒙脱石;4)邻近面伊利石特征元素K高于滑面,即邻近面伊利石含量明显高于滑面。实验用清晰的物理图像和准确的能谱数据证实:滑面、邻近面存在矿物成分和结构的显著差异,滑面孔隙率低有可能是因为滑面上覆土体压力造成的。本文首次以原位实验的方法揭示滑面、邻近面矿物成分、孔隙率和结晶度及粒度空间差异,为揭示滑面演化路径提供了可靠的依据,为最终建立滑面、土体跨尺度演化模型,我们需要进行更多的滑面、邻近面成分结构差异、宏观强度、微纳尺度结构对比分析、以及矿物演化动力学过程分析。

submitted time 2020-03-26 Hits9408Downloads1824 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202003.00082 [pdf]

Measuring colloidal forces between clay microparticles with optical tweezers

赵宇; 武京治; 胡良博; 蒋宇
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

The interaction forces between clay micro-particles play an important role in the macroscopic strength behavior of clayey soils. Optical tweezers were used in the present study to explore the interaction between clay micro- particles. This technology uses a highly focused laser beam to manipulate small objects and can also be used as a force transducer for the measurement of forces on the order of pico-Newtons (pN). Polystyrene beads were first used to measure the surface interactions between polystyrene beads and clay particles for accurate calibration of the system because of their perfectly spherical shape and optical homogeneity, and were successful in obtaining force mea- surements within the range of 20 pN. Subsequently the interactive force was measured when a small clay particle was moved along the surface of a large clay particle. The force measured varies as the interaction of clay surfaces may evolve along their relative motion, leading to force measurements up to 40 ? 80 pN. The present study shows a promising potential of optical tweezers in exploring the complex micro-scale phenomena in clay minerals.

submitted time 2020-03-26 Hits9227Downloads1685 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201911.00042 [pdf]

季节性冻土区土体冻融过程及其对水热因子的响应

乌艺恒
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

利用内蒙古赛罕乌拉森林生态系统国家野外观测研究站试验地的森林小气候观测塔,根据2015—2016年冻融期野外观测的气温、降水量、土壤温度和水分数据,对该区季节性冻土的冻融过程和特点进行了分析,研究了土壤冻结和解冻过程中各土壤层的垂直温度和水分的变化,以及对气温和降水量的响应。结果表明:①季节性冻土的土壤温度随着土层深度增加,土壤冻结和融化滞后天数也会增加,同时与气温的相关性也逐渐减小;②季节性冻土解冻的速度要快于冻结的速度;③在进入解冻期前,3月中旬到5月中旬,各层土壤温度始终保持在-1~1℃之间,不随气温波动;④降水量并不大的解冻期,土壤未冻水含量会迅速增加,说明冻融过程确实能够保存土壤水分,这将有利于植被应对春季干旱。

submitted time 2019-11-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1966Downloads1144 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201911.00043 [pdf]

黄河乌兰布和沙漠段两岸地表沉积物多重分形特征及其指示意义

常宏; 左合君
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

为了揭示黄河乌兰布和沙漠段两岸风沙沉积环境差异性与东岸沙物质来源,运用多重分形理论分析了两岸不同下垫面地表沉积物粒度多重分形特征。结果表明:除草地外,两岸沉积物众数粒径范围西岸为189.13~212.20 μm,东岸为133.89~168.56 μm,东岸地表颗粒整体较细,风能环境较弱。多重分形参数(D0、D1、D2、?α、?f)均表现为东岸>西岸,东岸沉积物粒径分布范围大、局部叠加程度强,进一步表明东岸沉积物颗粒属性差异大、颗粒来源范围广、沉积过程复杂、沉积环境多样。多重分形各参数与2~50 μm 、100~250 μm粒径颗粒含量存在显著相关,据风沙颗粒运移规律,结合两岸地形地貌,初步揭示上风向乌兰布和沙漠为黄河东岸2~50 μm悬移颗粒的主要源区之一。

submitted time 2019-11-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits2073Downloads1222 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201911.00044 [pdf]

石羊河流域表层沉积物垂直地带性分异特征—基于粒度与矿物指标

韩琴
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

地域分异规律是自然地理学非常重要的基本理论。在气候重建中,只考虑纬度地带性会使重建结果产生较大的误差。通过对石羊河流域现代表层沉积物粒度与矿物指标的垂直地带分布特征分析,结合流域全新世沉积剖面的粒度与矿物数据,对比石羊河流域的现代表层沉积物与全新世沉积物粒度和矿物特征,进而探索石羊河流域环境变化及其驱动机制。结果表明:全新世与现代具有相同的驱动力,石羊河流域上游在亚洲冬季风与西风的影响下,呈现山前风成沉积特征;中游地区在河湖水动力的影响下,呈现冲积、洪积特征;石羊河流域下游终端湖区,呈现湖相沉积特征,且现代气候较全新世时期更为干旱。

submitted time 2019-11-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1847Downloads1056 Comment 0

1234567  Last  Go  [7 Pages/ 66 Totals]