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1. chinaXiv:202110.00062 [pdf]

孤独症儿童潜在早期识别标志——发声异常及原因探析

刘敏; 胡洋; 刘巧云
Subjects: Psychology >> Medical Psychology

孤独症谱系障碍(Autism Spectrum Disorder,ASD)儿童的早期识别及早期干预对其发育结果至关重要。发声是指儿童学会说话之前发出的声音。已有研究表明,非类言语和类言语发声异常是ASD儿童2岁前的潜在识别标志。ASD儿童发声异常的理论解释主要有动机导向、神经运动导向、感知觉导向和社会反馈导向理论。未来研究可考虑探讨发声异常作为ASD儿童独特的早期识别标志的可能性,加强哭声在ASD儿童早期筛查中的研究,探索基于最具预测性声学参数集的自动学习分类模型,探究内在动机与社会动机对ASD儿童类言语发声的影响和进一步探究ASD儿童类言语发声异常的神经机制。从而为ASD儿童的早期识别及早期干预提供更加客观的理论依据。

submitted time 2021-10-14 Hits1679Downloads28 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202110.00059 [pdf]

儿童和青少年同伴侵害与攻击行为关系的三水平元分析

陈静; 冉光明; 张琪; 牛湘
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

攻击行为在儿童和青少年的社会、情感和心理适应中发挥着重要作用,而同伴侵害是儿童和青少年攻击行为一个重要的预测因素。先前的一些研究已经考察了儿童和青少年同伴侵害与攻击行为之间的关系,但是尚不完全清楚调节效应对二者关系的影响。因此当前研究采用三水平元分析方法检验效应量的可靠性和一系列调节效应。在系统地搜索了2020年10月之前发表的文献后,当前元分析确定了40项研究,包括25605名被试,共计333个独立效应量。主效应检验发现儿童和青少年的同伴侵害与攻击行为呈显著正相关。此外,调节效应检验发现同伴侵害变量具有显著的调节作用。与身体侵害相比,关系侵害与儿童和青少年攻击行为之间的相关更强。儿童和青少年的同伴侵害与攻击行为也受到了地区的调节,它们之间的关系在亚洲地区比在南美洲地区更强。研究设计也是一个显著的调节变量,儿童和青少年同伴侵害与攻击行为的相关在纵向研究中比在横向研究中更低。最后,当前元分析的结果显示同伴侵害的报告者也是一个显著的调节变量。与同伴报告的同伴侵害相比,教师报告的同伴侵害与儿童和青少年攻击行为之间的相关较高。当前研究的结果指出,在预防、控制儿童和青少年的攻击行为时应该注意同伴侵害对其的影响。

submitted time 2021-10-14 Hits1778Downloads31 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202110.00060 [pdf]

面相识人:基于认知视角的解释

张超; 卫旭华; 黎英明
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

面相是辨识和推断他人品格以及行为习性的重要因素,但其内在机理有待深化。基于一般认知视角和进化认知视角,从面相的局部特征和整体特征出发,阐述面相识人的过程及其影响效果。从一般认知视角来看,面相会通过不同的认知加工系统对识别个体特质产生影响,识别到的个体特质在判断(能力、收入、社会层级)以及决策(信任、招聘与晋升)过程中扮演重要角色。从进化认知视角来看,面相会通过不同的进化选择机制对识别个体健康、基因状况发挥作用,进而对判断(婚姻满意度、幸福感、生活满意度)和择偶决策产生重要影响。此外,面相的影响程度取决于个体所处的情境以及个体特质等因素。未来研究应该考察不同面相之间的交互作用,探索面相识人效果的边界条件,利用大数据分析提升面相研究的外部效度,关注后天修饰的面相的影响效果,开展本土情境下的面相识人研究,从而丰富面相的研究内容,构建更加系统的面相研究理论体系。

submitted time 2021-10-13 Hits1917Downloads35 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202110.00061 [pdf]

职业污名与离职倾向:牵连家人污名与家庭卷入的作用

季浩; 严进; 国维潇
Subjects: Psychology >> Management Psychology

职业污名对从业者的工作态度和工作行为有着重要影响。以往研究从个体职业身份的视角解释职业污名的作用,忽略了从业者个体身份认同的多重属性。本研究基于身份边界理论,提出职业污名会通过牵连家人污名这一机制影响从业者的离职倾向。另外,这一机制的强弱取决于个体的家庭卷入程度。本研究通过对分属不同职业的384名从业者的3轮问卷调研发现,家庭卷入调节了牵连家人污名在职业污名与离职倾向之间的中介作用。当个体的家庭卷入水平高时,这一中介作用更强;家庭卷入水平低时,该中介作用更弱。本研究在理论上提出并检验了职业污名影响的新机制,同时对实际管理工作提出了建议。

submitted time 2021-10-13 Hits1773Downloads31 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202110.00057 [pdf]

潜变量交互效应标准化估计:方法比较与选用策略

温忠麟; 欧阳劲樱; 方俊燕
Subjects: Psychology >> Statistics in Psychology

标准化估计对模型的解释和效应大小的比较有重要作用。虽然潜变量交互效应的恰当标准化估计公式已经面世超过10年,国内外都在使用和引用,但至今未见到关于不同估计方法得到的恰当标准化估计的系统比较。通过模拟实验,比较了乘积指标法、潜调节结构方程(LMS)、无先验信息和有先验信息的贝叶斯法的潜变量交互效应标准化估计在不同条件下的表现。结果发现,在正态条件下,LMS和有信息贝叶斯法表现较好;而在非正态条件下,乘积指标法比较稳健,但需要较大的样本(不小于500),小样本且外生潜变量之间相关较低时可使用无信息贝叶斯法。

submitted time 2021-10-12 Hits1783Downloads45 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202110.00058 [pdf]

不同情绪载体的神经活动及其异同——脑成像研究的ALE元分析

刘俊材; 冉光明; 张琪
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

情绪识别一直是学界关注的热点。虽然已有研究探讨了动态面孔表情、动态身体表情和声音情绪的脑机制,但对每种情绪载体的整体认识相对不完善,同时对不同情绪载体之间神经机制的共性和区别知之甚少。因此,本研究首先通过三项独立的激活似然估计元分析来识别每种情绪模式的大脑激活区域,然后进行对比分析以评估三种情绪载体之间共同的和独特的神经活动。结果显示,动态面孔表情的大脑活动包括广泛的额叶、枕叶、颞叶和部分顶叶皮层以及海马、小脑、丘脑、杏仁核等皮层下区域;动态身体表情的激活集中于颞/枕叶相关脑区以及小脑和海马;声音情绪则引起了颞叶、额叶、杏仁核、尾状核和脑岛的激活。联合分析表明,三种情绪载体跨模态激活了左侧颞中回和右侧颞上回。对比分析的结果证明了视觉刺激比听觉刺激更占优势,动态面孔表情尤为突出,同时动态身体表情也发挥着重要作用,但声音情绪有其独特性。总之,这些发现验证和拓展了三种情绪载体的现有神经模型,揭示了情绪处理中心的、普遍性的区域,但每种情绪载体又有自己可靠的特异性神经回路。

submitted time 2021-10-12 Hits1175Downloads79 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202110.00056 [pdf]

Resonance Algorithm: A New Look at the Shortest Path Problem

Liu, Yu; Lin, Qiguang; Hong, Binbin; Hjerpe, Daniel; Liu, Xiaofeng
Subjects: Mathematics >> Applied Mathematics
Subjects: Information Science and Systems Science >> Other Disciplines of Information Science and Systems Science

The shortest path problem (SPP) is a classic problem and appears in a wide range of applications. Although a variety of algorithms already exist, new advances are still being made, mainly tuned for particular scenarios to have better performances. As a result, they become more and more technically complex and sophisticated. Here we developed a novel nature-inspired algorithm to compute all possible shortest paths between two nodes in a graph: Resonance Algorithm (RA), which is surprisingly simple and intuitive. Besides its simplicity, RA turns out to be much more time-efficient for large-scale graphs than the extended Dijkstra's algorithm (such that it gives all possible shortest paths). Moreover, RA can handle any undirected, directed, or mixed graphs, irrespective of loops, unweighted or positively-weighted edges, and can be implemented in a fully decentralized manner. These good properties ensure RA a wide range of applications.

submitted time 2021-10-11 Hits1069Downloads67 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202110.00017 [pdf]

Delayed seed dispersal species and related traits in the desert of the United Arab Emirates

Teresa NAVARRO; Hatem A SHABANA; Ali EL-KEBLAWY; Noelia HIDALGO-TRIANA
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The ability of plants to safely retain seeds in the mother plant is an adaptive mechanism described in many desert plants. However, research about delayed seed dispersal species in the desert of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is lacking. This study aims to identify these delayed seed dispersal species and assess the relationships of the presence of delayed seed dispersal with plant growth form, habit, spatial dispersal, antitelechoric mechanism, and seed release time. The relationships between the presence of delayed seed dispersal and the above studied traits were assessed by using the Pearson Chi-square test and Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis (NLPCA). Results showed that a total of 46 delayed seed dispersal species were recorded (15.0% of 307 studied species) and the highest incidence occurred in the Fabaceae family (17.4%). Delayed seed dispersal species were predominantly perennial plants (73.9%) with spatial restricted dispersal (67.4%), which released seed in the dry season (45.7%). The dominant groups of delayed seed dispersal species were persistent fruits species and synaptospermy (28.3%). All graminoids showed persistent lignified fruits, while prostrate annuals were basicarpic species with myxospermy. Sandy habitats had the highest number of delayed seed dispersal species (54.3%), whereas salt flats had the lowest (23.9%). In the desert of the UAE, delayed seed dispersal species spread seeds until the end of the dry and windy season, thus breaking seed dormancy at this time and ensuring seed germination in the next arrival of the rainy season. This morphological and ecological adaptation of delayed dispersal species is essential to the survival and sustainable development of vegetation in desert environments.

submitted time 2021-10-11 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2454Downloads66 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202110.00019 [pdf]

Effects of different ridge-furrow mulching systems on yield and water use efficiency of summer maize in the Loess Plateau of China

CHEN Pengpeng; GU Xiaobo; LI Yuannong; QIAO Linran; LI Yupeng; FANG Heng; YIN Minhua; ZHOU Changming
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Ridge-furrow film mulching has been proven to be an effective water-saving and yield-improving planting pattern in arid and semi-arid regions. Drought is the main factor limiting the local agricultural production in the Loess Plateau of China. In this study, we tried to select a suitable ridge-furrow mulching system to improve this situation. A two-year field experiment of summer maize (Zea mays L.) during the growing seasons of 2017 and 2018 was conducted to systematically analyze the effects of flat planting with no film mulching (CK), ridge-furrow with ridges mulching and furrows bare (RFM), and double ridges and furrows full mulching (DRFFM) on soil temperature, soil water storage (SWS), root growth, aboveground dry matter, water use efficiency (WUE), and grain yield. Both RFM and DRFFM significantly increased soil temperature in ridges, while soil temperature in furrows for RFM and DRFFM was similar to that for CK. The largest SWS was observed in DRFFM, followed by RFM and CK, with significant differences among them. SWS was lower in ridges than in furrows for RFM. DRFFM treatment kept soil water in ridges, resulting in higher SWS in ridges than in furrows after a period of no water input. Across the two growing seasons, compared with CK, RFM increased root mass by 10.2% and 19.3% at the jointing and filling stages, respectively, and DRFFM increased root mass by 7.9% at the jointing stage but decreased root mass by 6.0% at the filling stage. Over the two growing seasons, root length at the jointing and filling stages was respectively increased by 75.4% and 58.7% in DRFFM, and 20.6% and 30.2% in RFM. Relative to the jointing stage, the increased proportions of root mass and length at the filling stage were respectively 42.8% and 94.9% in DRFFM, 63.2% and 115.1% in CK, and 76.7% and 132.1% in RFM, over the two growing seasons, showing that DRFFM slowed down root growth while RFM promoted root growth at the later growth stages. DRFFM treatment increased root mass and root length in ridges and decreased them in 0–30 cm soil layer, while RFM increased them in 0–30 cm soil layer. Compared with CK, DRFFM decreased aboveground dry matter while RFM increased it. Evapotranspiration was reduced by 9.8% and 7.1% in DRFFM and RFM, respectively, across the two growing seasons. Grain yield was decreased by 14.3% in DRFFM and increased by 13.6% in RFM compared with CK over the two growing seasons. WUE in CK was non-significantly 6.8% higher than that in DRFFM and significantly 22.5% lower than that in RFM across the two growing seasons. Thus, RFM planting pattern is recommended as a viable water-saving option for summer maize in the Loess Plateau of China.

submitted time 2021-10-11 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2465Downloads61 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202110.00020 [pdf]

Response of C:N:P in the plant-soil system and stoichiometric homeostasis of Nitraria tangutorum leaves in the oasis-desert ecotone, Northwest China

WEI Yajuan; DANG Xiaohong; WANG Ji; GAO Junliang; GAO Yan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Nitraria tangutorum nebkhas are widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid desert areas of China. The formation and development of N. tangutorum nebkhas are the result of the interaction between vegetation and the surrounding environment in the process of community succession. Different successional stages of N. tangutorum nebkhas result in differences in the community structure and composition, thereby strongly affecting the distribution of soil nutrients and ecosystem stability. However, the ecological stoichiometry of N. tangutorum nebkhas in different successional stages remains poorly understood. Understanding the stoichiometric homeostasis of N. tangutorum could provide insights into its adaptability to the arid and semi-arid desert environments. Therefore, we analyzed the stoichiometric characteristics of N. tangutorum in four successional stages, i.e., rudimental, developing, stabilizing, and degrading stages using a homeostasis model in an oasis-desert ecotone of Northwest China. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents and their ratios in the 0–100 cm soil depth were significantly lower than the averages at regional and global scales and were weakly influenced by successional stages in the oasis-desert ecotone. TN and TP contents and C:N:P in the soil showed similar trends. Total carbon (TC) and TN contents in leaves were 450.69–481.07 and 19.72–29.35 g/kg, respectively, indicating that leaves of N. tangutorum shrubs had a high storage capacity for C and N. Leaf TC and TN contents and N:P ratio increased from the rudimental stage to the stabilizing stage and then decreased in the degrading stage, while the reverse trend was found for leaf C:N. Leaf TP content decreased from the rudimental stage to the degrading stage and changed significantly in late successional stages. N:P ratio was above the theoretical limit of 14, indicating that the growth of N. tangutorum shrubs was limited by P during successional stages. Leaf N, P, and N:P homeostasis in four successional stages was identified as ''strictly homeostasis''. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil acidity (pH) and the maximum water holding capacity were the main factors affecting C:N:P stoichiometric characteristics in N. tangutorum leaves. Our study demonstrated that N. tangutorum with a high degree of stoichiometric homeostasis could better cope with the arid desert environment.

submitted time 2021-10-11 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2427Downloads60 Comment 0

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