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1. chinaXiv:202112.00007 [pdf]

AOM DSS诱导炎症引起的小鼠结直肠癌模型尿液蛋白质组的研究

衡姊琦; 高友鹤
Subjects: Biology >> Biochemistry

摘要: [目的]尿液蛋白质组能够灵敏的反映机体的生理变化,可以为炎症引起的结直肠癌的发展提供一定线索。 [方法]本研究使用液相色谱联用质谱(LC-MS/MS),对利用AOM/DSS诱导炎症引起的结直肠癌小鼠模型的尿液差异蛋白进行筛选并进行生物学通路的分析,从生物学通路层面去寻找规律,探究小鼠炎癌模型在结直肠癌的发展中的变化过程。 [结果](1)尿液蛋白质组的变化能够反映实验小鼠的病理生理变化。所有实验小鼠差异蛋白富集到被报道过的且与炎症和肿瘤相关的共有生物学通路有:急性期反应、细胞黏附、天然免疫反应、蛋白激酶B信号的正调控、B细胞活化正调控、糖代谢的相关通路,特别是免疫相关的反应伴随始终。(2)实验小鼠的疾病进展不同,进展不同阶段的小鼠尿液蛋白质组表现不同。本研究运用的单只小鼠独立分析的研究方法能为炎癌模型的小鼠疾病进程提供线索,同时也为未来个性化、精准化疾病分析的方法提供借鉴。

submitted time 2021-12-01 Hits48Downloads20 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202111.00034 [pdf]

Revisit of Hsianwenia wui (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) from the Pliocene of Qaidam Basin

BI Dai-Ran; WU Fei-Xiang; WANG Ning; CHANG Mee-Man; FANG Geng-Yu
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The Qaidam Basin is a key area for understanding the paleoenvironmental and faunal history of the Tibetan Plateau. The fossil schizothoracine fish, Hsianwenia wui, evolved extraordinarily thickened bones to adapt to the aridification of the Qaidam Basin during the Pliocene. However, the nature of the bone thickening itself remains elusive. To promote the further investigation of the physiological mechanism of the pachyostosis and the phylogenetic interrelationships of Hsianwenia and all relevant cyprinids, here we present a comprehensive morphological study of Hsianwenia. We have new information on the anterior part of the cranial cavity, a large supraneural 3 in the Weberian apparatus, numerous procurrent caudal fin rays supported by the preural centrum (Pu) 5, and a neural arch on Pu2. We also find the differentiated pattern of the bone-thickening: the pachyostosis exists in the endoskeleton but not in the dermal skeleton; it is more obvious in ventral bones than in dorsal ones, when the thickening is present in the dorsally and ventrally grouped endoskeletal bones (e.g., the epineural and epipleural intermuscular bones). Considering the integrity of musculoskeletal system manipulating the chewing activities, we suspect that the thickened pharyngeal jaws and the hard food processing might be associated with the unique hind protrusion (cleithral “humeral” process) of the dermal pectoral girdle of Hsianwenia.

submitted time 2021-11-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits195Downloads78 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202111.00035 [pdf]

A revision of the eggshell fragment of Spheroolithus megadermus from Laiyang, Shandong Province, China

ZHANG Shu-Kang
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

In 1958, a special type of dinosaur egg was discovered in Zhaotuan, Laiyang, Shandong Province, China. Although only a large eggshell fragment was collected, its extremely large thickness indicated that the eggshell fragment represented a new ootaxon. In previous studies, it was named Spheroolithus megadermus and assigned to the oogenus Spheroolithus under the oofamily of the Spheroolithidae based on the microstructure in radial view. However, a comparative study of the microstructure in tangential views between the large eggshell fragment from Laiyang and the recently reported Multifissoolithus from Zhejiang Province, China and Yamaguchi, Japan revealed that all of them have roughly paralleled and wavy clefts. Therefore, this study reassigned the large eggshell fragment from Laiyang to Multifissoolithus of the Dongyangoolithidae and discussed its unique compact layer near the eggshell’s inner surface, as well as the chronological and spatial distribution of dongyangoolithid eggs. The reassignment of the holotype of Spheroolithus megadermus also indicates that the referred specimen of Spheroolithus megadermus from Changtu, Liaoning Province becomes the holotype of a new oospecies Spheroolithus quantouensis.

submitted time 2021-11-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits157Downloads62 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202111.00036 [pdf]

A new aardwolf-line fossil hyena from Middle and Late Miocene deposits of Linxia Basin, Gansu, China

Henry GALIANO; Z. Jack TSENG; Nikos SOLOUNIAS; WANG Xiao-Ming; QIU Zhan-Xiang; Stuart C. WHITE
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The aardwolf Proteles cristatus is the only known hyaenid, living or extinct, to exhibit an extremely reduced dentition related to its termite-specializing diet. The fossil record of extant aardwolves extends to 2 to 4 million years ago, but records that inform its evolutionary origins are essentially nonexistent. Such circumstance renders it difficult to place this unusual hyena in the broader evolutionary context of small-bodied hyaenid species in Eurasian Neogene deposits. Here we describe a new genus and species of a small-bodied hyaenid, Gansuyaena megalotis, representing the closest morphological link to aardwolves to date. This new fossil hyena is based on a skull with associated mandible, a rostrum preserving several teeth, and several referred specimens. The new specimens were discovered in Neogene deposits in Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that among early hyaenids, G. megalotis is most closely related, but unlikely ancestral, to the living aardwolf. Also recognized in this new species are the fossils previously referred to “Protictitherium” aff. P. gaillardi from Pasalar, Turkey. Additionally, “Plioviverrops” guerini from Los Mansuetos, Spain is interpreted to represent a second Gansuyaena species. In addition to the living aardwolf, Proteles cristatus, our analyses suggest that the proteline lineage includes the extinct genera Gansuyaena, Mesoviverrops, and Plioviverrops. Although the precise timing and geographic location of evolutionary divergence between the aardwolf and Gansuyaena remain elusive, critical new morphological information provided by Gansuyaena specimens reinforce findings from recent genomic analyses that the aardwolf lineage has an ancient origin from small-bodied stem hyaenids prior to the appearance of large and robust bone-cracking hyaenines.

submitted time 2021-11-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits151Downloads54 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202112.00010 [pdf]


田昌芬; 李蒙; 黄亚健; 周源昊; 王贤荣
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

中国花楸属单叶类群(24 种)包含落萼组与冠萼组,亦有学者将其分为两个属(白花楸属和水榆属)或合并成为一个属(白花楸属)。由于其花序和果实的高度相似性,长期以来分类地位具有争议,而叶脉序特征在花楸属单叶类群中的分类作用尚不明确。因此,该研究以国产花楸属落萼组的?13 个物种和冠萼组的?7 个物种作为研究对象,以清净法制作标本对叶脉序特征进行观测研究,辅助部分叶形态特征进行主成分分析及系统聚类分析。结果表明:(1)中国单叶花楸在叶脉构架上存在一些共性:脉型都为羽状脉、网眼发育情况中等、间二级脉频度在每个粗二级脉间区少于一条;(2)不同物种的粗二级脉构架及对数、有无细二级脉、粗二级脉与主脉夹角的大小、二级脉间三级脉结构、盲脉分支情况、锯齿类型、叶片大小等性状存在一定差异;(3)冠萼组和落萼组组间的脉序特征存在较大的相似性,如粗二级脉构架、叶片大小、盲脉分支情况等多个脉序特征组间存在交叉,基于脉序特征的系统聚类结果不支持冠萼组和落萼组的划分。综上结果可知,叶脉序特征虽然无法作为冠萼组和落萼组的分组依据,但可以为部分单叶花楸的分类提供依据。

submitted time 2021-11-04 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits10Downloads6 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202112.00011 [pdf]


李毅鹏; 潘争红; 符毓夏; 宁德生; 李连春; 海洪
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Applied botany

为了研究猫须草(Clerodendranthus spicatus)抗炎活性成分。该研究采用活性追踪的方法,利用硅胶、MCI 柱色谱以及?HPLC 等分离技术,对猫须草抗炎活性部位进行分离纯化,通过波谱数据分析和文献比对鉴定化合物结构;利用?LPS 诱导的?RAW264.7 巨噬细胞炎症模型进行抗炎活性评价。结果表明:(1)从猫须草抗炎活性部位分离得到?10 个化合物,分别鉴定为泡桐素(1)、鼠尾草素(2)、对苯二甲酸二辛酯(3)、N-(N-苯甲酰基-L-苯丙酰基)-L-苯基丙醇(4)、fragransin B1(5)、6,7,8,4'-四甲氧基黄酮(6)、N-反式-阿魏酰酪胺(7)、?N-顺式-阿魏酰酪胺(8)、trans-N-cinnamoyltyramine(9)、新海胆灵A(10),其中化合物?1、?4、8-10 为首次从该植物中分离得到。(2)抗炎结果显示,猫须草抗炎活性成分主要存在于中低极性部位,从中分离得到的大部分化合物显示出一定的?NO 生成抑制活性,其中酰胺类成分(7-9)均具有较好的抗炎活性,表明该类成分是猫须草抗炎作用的主要成分之一。该研究丰富了猫须草抗炎物质基础,为其开发利用提供科学依据。

submitted time 2021-11-04 From cooperative journals:《广西植物》 Hits11Downloads6 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202110.00032 [pdf]


Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

灌丛沙堆在维持草地生态功能和土地沙漠化过程中扮演着非常重要角色。浑善达克沙地 分布着众多灌丛沙堆,其中以锦鸡儿属(Caragana)灌丛沙堆最为典型。选择不同沙漠化程度(轻 度沙漠化、中度沙漠化、重度沙漠化、严重沙漠化)沙地上的锦鸡儿属灌丛沙堆,进行野外调查和灌 丛沙堆形态指标测量,对比不同沙漠化程度沙地上锦鸡儿属灌丛沙堆的形态特征,分析灌丛和沙 堆形态参数间的关系及其影响因子。结果表明:(1)不同沙漠化程度沙地灌丛沙堆大小不同,总体 表现为灌丛沙堆规模从严重沙漠化、重度沙漠化、中度沙漠化到轻度沙漠化逐渐减小的特点,轻度 和中度沙漠化沙地的灌丛沙堆形态在水平面上的垂直投影类似椭圆形、形状类似半椭圆球体,重 度和严重沙漠化沙地的灌丛沙堆形态在水平面上的垂直投影类似不规则棱形、形状类似四棱锥 体,沙堆形态的主要影响因素可能与沙源丰富度有关。(2)不同沙漠化程度沙地上的锦鸡儿属灌丛 的各形态参数呈显著相关,重度和严重沙漠化沙地上的锦鸡儿属灌丛沙堆形态参数间的相关系数 比中度和轻度的更高,总体上灌丛沙堆长轴、短轴和沙堆高度之间协同发展。(3)轻度和中度沙漠 化沙地上的锦鸡儿属灌丛沙堆的长轴、短轴与高度间呈幂函数关系,表明灌丛沙堆还存在较大发 展空间,重度和严重沙漠化沙地上灌丛沙堆的长轴、短轴与高度间呈二次函数关系,表明灌丛沙堆 已经发育成熟,且易因根系水分供应不足等导致灌丛向衰亡方向发展。

submitted time 2021-10-10 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits4262Downloads209 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202110.00033 [pdf]


Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

灌丛群落作为祁连山森林生态系统的重要组成部分,在维护西北地区生态安全方面扮演着 不可或缺的角色。系统地研究祁连山地区灌丛群落结构特征对阐明灌丛群落的更新、演替和稳定 具有十分重要的意义,可为祁连山区森林生态系统的保护、恢复与重建提供基础数据和科学依 据。选择分布在祁连山大野口流域的甘青锦鸡儿(Caragana tangutica)、鲜黄小檗(Berberis diapha? na)、金露梅(Potentilla fruticosa)、鬼箭锦鸡儿(Caragana jubata)和吉拉柳(Salix gilashanica)5 种典 型灌丛群落为研究对象,通过野外调查取样和室内分析,主要研究了 5 种典型灌丛群落的物种组 成、生活型组成和物种多样性的变化规律。结果表明:(1)祁连山大野口流域灌丛群落组成较为简 单,只出现了 48 种植物,隶属于 26 科,38 属,以蔷薇科、禾本科、菊科和豆科等西北干旱区优势科的 数量居多。(2)生活型谱均以地面芽植物所占比例最大,为 37.09%,地上芽植物所占比例最少,为 4.00%。(3)整体上看,灌丛群落的 Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数(H)变化范围为 1.12~2.26,Simpson 多样性指数(D)变化范围为 0.60~0.74,其物种多样性指数较低,物种组成较为简单,其中不同灌丛 群落 H 多样性指数表现为金露梅>鬼箭锦鸡儿>鲜黄小檗>甘青锦鸡儿>吉拉柳,D 多样性指数表现 为金露梅>鬼箭锦鸡儿>吉拉柳>鲜黄小檗>甘青锦鸡儿。(4)不同的生境条件导致群落多样性层间 结构存在差异,除鬼箭锦鸡儿群落,多样性指数均为草本层>灌木层,而鬼箭锦鸡儿群落中灌木层 和草本层的物种多样性指数较为接近,物种组成灌草均一。

submitted time 2021-10-10 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits5081Downloads486 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202109.00029 [pdf]


Subjects: Biology >> Botany

采用培养皿法研究不同类型钠盐胁迫对荒漠植物盐爪爪种子萌发率、萌发指数、幼苗芽长和根长,分析盐爪爪种子萌发与幼苗生长适应不同类型盐碱地的机制,为种植盐爪爪生态修复不同类型盐碱地提供了科学依据。结果表明:(1)NaCl、Na2SO4、NaHCO3、Na2CO3均显著抑制盐爪爪种子的萌发率和萌发指数。(2)回归方程分析盐爪爪萌发期的耐NaCl、Na2SO4、NaHCO3、Na2CO3临界值分别为325 mmol·L-1、267 mmol·L-1、245 mmol·L-1 和166 mmol·L-1,其极限值分别是671 mmol·L-1、580 mmol·L-1、569 mmol·L-1和389 mmol·L-1,相对于中性盐,盐爪爪种子萌发时对碱性盐更敏感。(3)NaCl、Na2SO4、NaHCO3、Na2CO3均显著抑制盐爪爪幼苗芽和根的生长,盐爪爪种子萌发和幼苗生长对这4种钠盐的响应差异显著;相对于幼苗芽,幼苗根的响应更为敏感,可将根长作为评价盐爪爪耐盐性的参数,碱性盐毒害强于中性盐;根据盐分对盐爪爪种子萌发和幼苗生长的毒害性顺序依次为:NaCl<Na2SO4<NaHCO3<Na2CO3。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits4934Downloads561 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202109.00030 [pdf]


Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

对新疆额尔齐斯河流域5种主要杨树天然林生物量和器官养分含量分析表明:5种杨树叶片平均N含量为19.36 g·kg-1,平均P含量为2.89 g·kg-1,叶片N含量接近全球和国内陆地植物水平,叶片P含量较高于全球和国内陆地植物平均水平;叶片平均N:P比值为6.83,相对较低于全球和国内陆地植物叶片N:P比值平均水平;叶片N:P比值高于茎干,茎干高于根系。额尔齐斯河杂交杨的叶片K含量最高,苦杨的茎干K含量最高,银白杨的根系K含量最高。5种杨树天然林生物量分布比,即苦杨:额尔齐斯河杂交杨:银灰杨:欧洲黑杨:银白杨为1:1.03:1.15:1.23:1.37,银白杨的生物量分布最高,苦杨的生物量分布最低。

submitted time 2021-09-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits4949Downloads244 Comment 0

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