Current Location:home > Browse

Subjects

Institution

1. chinaXiv:202112.00041 [pdf]

视觉形状知觉在近似数量系统和计算流畅性关系中的作用

张译允; 马媛媛; 赵锦; 周新林; 邵园颖
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

已有大量研究揭示了近似数量系统与计算流畅性的相关关系,但缺少对二者关系原因的系统检验与论证。视觉形状知觉假设有别于传统的数量领域特异性解释,认为对形状的快速知觉是近似数量系统与计算流畅性的共同认知机制,即视觉形状的快速知觉能力可以解释二者之间的相关关系。近似数量系统和计算流畅性在加工过程中依赖对形状的快速知觉,二者在加工过程中都涉及了复杂视觉刺激的快速处理。视觉形状知觉假设得到了一系列研究结果的支持,但局限在视觉形状知觉与二者关系的探讨上,视觉形状知觉在二者关系中作用的加工机制仍不清楚。未来研究需要结合多种研究方法和技术,多角度深入探讨视觉形状知觉在二者关系中作用的认知与脑机制,并将研究结果应用于数学课堂教学和计算困难的干预中。

submitted time 2021-12-06 Hits15Downloads6 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202112.00036 [pdf]

人们为什么会羞怯:认知机制及神经基础

李亮; 李红
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

羞怯指个体在社交情境下的抑制,是个体参与社交的阻碍。近年来,关于羞怯的认知神经科学研究增多,学者基于元认知模型、社会适应模型、侧化脑-体情绪模型等理论,探讨了大脑结构和功能以及几种与感知觉和注意相关的ERP成分与羞怯的关系。但当前关于羞怯认知神经科学的理论和实证研究尚处于起步阶段。基于上述提出羞怯的心理发展模型;未来应从人格和情绪双角度研究羞怯,并在开发研究范式的基础上,加大羞怯认知神经机制的探讨。

submitted time 2021-12-05 Hits73Downloads29 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202112.00037 [pdf]

问题解决测验中过程数据的特征抽取与能力评估

韩雨婷; 肖悦; 刘红云
Subjects: Psychology >> Psychological Measurement

基于计算机的问题解决测验可以实时记录被试探索环境和解决问题时的详细行动痕迹,并保存为过程数据。首先介绍了过程数据的分析流程,然后从问题解决测验入手,分别对过程数据的特征抽取和能力估计建模两方面的研究进行了梳理和评价。未来研究应注意:提高分析结果的可解释性;特征提取时纳入更多信息;实现更复杂问题情景下的能力评估; 注重方法的实用性;以及融合与借鉴不同领域的分析方法。

submitted time 2021-12-04 Hits106Downloads57 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202112.00039 [pdf]

急性应激与风险决策:兴奋易感性的调节作用

王霈珊; 古若雷; 张亮
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

为探索应激对决策的作用机理及其个体差异,减少工程作业中因应激导致的决策失误,本研究采用特里尔社会应激测试和气球模拟风险任务考察应激反应与应激下风险倾向的关系,并探索兴奋易感性在其中的调节作用。研究结果表明,应激下个体的皮质醇反应越大,行为越冒险。且这一作用受到兴奋易感性的调节:兴奋易感性较高的个体,应激下皮质醇反应越大,行为越冒险;而兴奋易感性较低的个体,其皮质醇变化不能预测风险倾向。该发现提示了兴奋易感性在应激影响中的重要作用,也为高压岗位的人员选拔提供了科学启示。

submitted time 2021-12-04 Hits36Downloads16 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202112.00038 [pdf]

基于仿真气球冒险任务(BART)的风险决策研究

邓尧; 王梦梦; 饶恒毅
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

仿真气球冒险任务(The Balloon Analog Risk Task, BART)能在实验室环境下模拟真实世界的风险情境,具有高生态性,稳定性和可靠性等优点,已经成为风险决策研究的中最常用的实验范式之一。近年来,研究者发展了多种BART变体范式,对发展、健康以及精神病理等多领域的风险决策行为及其神经基础开展了广泛探索。BART任务中的风险决策加工与腹侧纹状体、前扣带皮层、脑岛、中脑及背外侧前额叶等脑区的激活相关。未来研究需要进一步完善BART任务在风险决策认知神经领域的信效度并扩展BART的应用情境。

submitted time 2021-12-03 Hits47Downloads22 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202112.00013 [pdf]

A new method of searching for concealed Au deposits by using the spectrum of arid desert plant species

CUI Shichao; ZHOU Kefa; ZHANG Guanbin; DING Rufu; WANG Jinlin; CHENG Yinyi; JIANG Guo
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

With the increase of exploration depth, it is more and more difficult to find Au deposits. Due to the limitation of time and cost, traditional geological exploration methods are becoming increasingly difficult to be effectively applied. Thus, new methods and ideas are urgently needed. This study assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of using hyperspectral technology to prospect for hidden Au deposits. For this purpose, 48 plant (Seriphidium terrae-albae) and soil (aeolian gravel desert soil) samples were first collected along a sampling line that traverses an Au mineralization alteration zone (Aketasi mining region in an arid region of China) and were used to obtain soil Au contents by a chemical analysis method and the reflectance spectra of plants obtained with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) FieldSpec3 spectrometer. Then, the corresponding relationship between the soil Au content anomaly and concealed Au deposits was investigated. Additionally, the characteristic bands were selected from plant spectra using four different methods, namely, genetic algorithm (GA), stepwise regression analysis (STE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and correlation coefficient method (CC), and were then input into the partial least squares (PLS) method to construct a model for estimating the soil Au content. Finally, the quantitative relationship between the soil Au content and the 15 different plant transformation spectra was established using the PLS method. The results were compared with those of a model based on the full spectrum. The results obtained in this study indicate that the location of concealed Au deposits can be predicted based on soil geochemical anomaly information, and it is feasible and effective to use the full plant spectrum and PLS method to estimate the Au content in the soil. The cross-validated coefficient of determination (R2) and the ratio of the performance to deviation (RPD) between the predicted value and the measured value reached the maximum of 0.8218 and 2.37, respectively, with a minimum value of 6.56 μg/kg for the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) in the full spectrum model. However, in the process of modeling, it is crucial to select the appropriate transformation spectrum as the input parameter for the PLS method. Compared with the GA, STE, and CC methods, CARS was the superior characteristic band screening method based on the accuracy and complexity of the model. When modeling with characteristic bands, the highest accuracy, R2 of 0.8016, RMSE of 7.07 μg/kg, and RPD of 2.20 were obtained when 56 characteristic bands were selected from the transformed spectra (1/lnR)' (where it represents the first derivative of the reciprocal of the logarithmic spectrum) of sampled plants using the CARS method and were input into the PLS method to construct an inversion model of the Au content in the soil. Thus, characteristic bands can replace the full spectrum when constructing a model for estimating the soil Au content. Finally, this study proposes a method of using plant spectra to find concealed Au deposits, which may have promising application prospects because of its simplicity and rapidity.

submitted time 2021-12-03 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits64Downloads27 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202112.00014 [pdf]

Elevated CO2 increases shoot growth but not root growth and C:N:P stoichiometry of Suaeda aralocaspica plants

WANG Lei; FAN Lianlian; JIANG Li; TIAN Changyan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the eco-physiological responses, in terms of growth and C:N:P stoichiometry of plants cultured from dimorphic seeds of a single-cell C4 annual Suaeda aralocaspica (Bunge) Freitag and Schütze under elevated CO2. A climatic chamber experiment was conducted to examine the effects of ambient (720 μg/L) and CO2-enriched (1440 μg/L) treatments on these responses in S. aralocaspica at vegetative and reproductive stages in 2012. Result showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased shoot dry weight, but decreased N:P ratio at both growth stages. Plants grown from dimorphic seeds did not exhibit significant differences in growth and C:N:P stoichiometric characteristics. The transition from vegetation to reproductive stage significantly increased shoot:root ratio, N and P contents, but decreased C:N, C:P and N:P ratios, and did not affect shoot dry weight. Moreover, our results indicate that the changes in N:P and C:N ratios between ambient and elevated CO2 are mainly caused by the decrease of N content under elevated CO2. These results provide an insight into nutritional metabolism of single-cell C4 plants under climate change.

submitted time 2021-12-03 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits60Downloads30 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202112.00016 [pdf]

Temporal and spatial variations of net primary productivity and its response to groundwater of a typical oasis in the Tarim Basin, China

SUN Lingxiao; YU Yang; GAO Yuting; ZHANG Haiyan; YU Xiang; HE Jing; WANG Dagang; Ireneusz MALIK; Malgorzata WISTUBA; YU Ruide
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Net primary productivity (NPP) of the vegetation in an oasis can reflect the productivity capacity of a plant community under natural environmental conditions. Owing to the extreme arid climate conditions and scarce precipitation in the arid oasis regions, groundwater plays a key role in restricting the development of the vegetation. The Qira Oasis is located on the southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert (Tarim Basin, China) that is one of the most vulnerable regions regarding vegetation growth and water scarcity in the world. Based on remote sensing images of the Qira Oasis and daily meteorological data measured by the ground stations during the period 2006–2019, this study analyzed the temporal and spatial patterns of NPP in the oasis as well as its relation with the variation of groundwater depth using a modified Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) model. At the spatial scale, NPP of the vegetation decreased from the interior of the Qira Oasis to the margin; at the temporal scale, NPP of the vegetation in the oasis fluctuated significantly (ranging from 29.80 to 50.07 g C/(m2?month)) but generally showed an increasing trend, with the average increase rate of 0.07 g C/(m2?month). The regions with decreasing NPP occupied 64% of the total area of the oasis. During the study period, NPP of both farmland and grassland showed an increasing trend, while that of forest showed a decreasing trend. The depth of groundwater was deep in the south of the oasis and shallow in the north, showing a gradual increasing trend from south to north. Groundwater, as one of the key factors in the surface change and evolution of the arid oasis, determines the succession direction of the vegetation in the Qira Oasis. With the increase of groundwater depth, grassland coverage and vegetation NPP decreased. During the period 2008–2015, with the recovery of groundwater level, NPP values of all types of vegetation with different coverages increased. This study will provide a scientific basis for the rational utilization and sustainable management of groundwater resources in the oasis.

submitted time 2021-12-03 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits50Downloads20 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202112.00015 [pdf]

Using statistical models and GIS to delimit the groundwater recharge potential areas and to estimate the infiltration rate: A case study of Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem Basin, Tunisia

Ali SOUEI; Taher ZOUAGHI
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The water resources of the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem Basin in Tunisia exhibit semi-arid and arid climatic conditions. This induces an excessive pumping of groundwater, which creates drops in water level ranging about 1–2 m/a. Indeed, these unfavorable conditions require interventions to rationalize integrated management in decision making. The aim of this study is to determine a water recharge index (WRI), delineate the potential groundwater recharge area and estimate the potential groundwater recharge rate based on the integration of statistical models resulted from remote sensing imagery, GIS digital data (e.g., lithology, soil, runoff), measured artificial recharge data, fuzzy set theory and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Eight factors affecting potential groundwater recharge were determined, namely lithology, soil, slope, topography, land cover/use, runoff, drainage and lineaments. The WRI is between 1.2 and 3.1, which is classified into five classes as poor, weak, moderate, good and very good sites of potential groundwater recharge area. The very good and good classes occupied respectively 27% and 44% of the study area. The potential groundwater recharge rate was 43% of total precipitation. According to the results of the study, river beds are favorable sites for groundwater recharge.

submitted time 2021-12-03 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits57Downloads25 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202112.00017 [pdf]

Predicting of dust storm source by combining remote sensing, statistic-based predictive models and game theory in the Sistan watershed, southwestern Asia

Mahdi BOROUGHANI; Sima POURHASHEMI; Hamid GHOLAMI; Dimitris G KASKAOUTIS
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Dust storms in arid and desert areas affect radiation budget, air quality, visibility, enzymatic activities, agricultural products and human health. Due to increased drought and land use changes in recent years, the frequency of dust storms occurrence in Iran has been increased. This study aims to identify dust source areas in the Sistan watershed (Iran-Afghanistan borders)–an important regional source for dust storms in southwestern Asia, using remote sensing (RS) and bivariate statistical models. Furthermore, this study determines the relative importance of factors controlling dust emissions using frequency ratio (FR) and weights of evidence (WOE) models and interpretability of predictive models using game theory. For this purpose, we identified 211 dust sources in the study area and generated a dust source distribution map–inventory map–by dust source potential index based on RS data. In addition, spatial maps of topographic factors affecting dust source areas including soil, lithology, slope, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), geomorphology and land use were prepared. The performance of two models (WOE and FR) was evaluated using the area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve. The results showed that soil, geomorphology and slope exhibited the greatest influence in the dust source areas. The 55.3% (according to FR) and 62.6% (according to WOE) of the total area were classified as high and very high potential dust sources, while both models displayed acceptable accuracy with subsurface levels of 0.704 for FR and 0.751 for WOE, although they predict different fractions of dust potential classes. Based on Shapley additive explanations (SHAP), three factors, i.e., soil, slope and NDVI have the highest impact on the model's output. Overall, combination of statistic-based predictive models (or data mining models), RS and game theory techniques can provide accurate maps of dust source areas in arid and semi-arid regions, which can be helpful for mitigation of negative effects of dust storms.

submitted time 2021-12-03 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits55Downloads24 Comment 0

12345678910  Last  Go  [1545 Pages/ 15447 Totals]