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1. chinaXiv:202111.00044 [pdf]

Response of ecosystem service value to land use/cover change in the northern slope economic belt of the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China

SUN Chen; MA Yonggang; GONG Lu
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Land use/cover change (LUCC) is becoming more and more frequent and extensive as a result of human activities, and is expected to have a major impact on human welfare by altering ecosystem service value (ESV). In this study, we utilized remote sensing images and statistical data to explore the spatial-temporal changes of land use/cover types and ESV in the northern slope economic belt of the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China from 1975 to 2018. During the study period, LUCC in the study region varied significantly. Except grassland and unused land, all the other land use/cover types (cultivated land, forestland, waterbody, and construction land) increased in areas. From 1975 to 2018, the spatial-temporal variations in ESV were also pronounced. The total ESV decreased by 4.00×108 CNY, which was primarily due to the reductions in the areas of grassland and unused land. Waterbody had a much higher ESV than the other land use/cover types. Ultimately, understanding the impact of LUCC on ESV and the interactions among ESV of different land use/cover types will help improve existing land use policies and provide scientific basis for developing new conservation strategies for ecologically fragile areas.

submitted time 2021-11-11 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits26Downloads12 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202111.00045 [pdf]

Succession of soil bacterial and fungal communities of Caragana korshinskii plantation in a typical agro-pastoral ecotone in northern China over a 50-a period

MA Gailing; GOU Qianqian; WANG Guohua; QU Jianjun
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Bacterial and fungal communities play critical roles in reestablishing vegetation structure, function and biodiversity in ecosystem restoration in arid and semi-arid areas. However, the long-term successional changes in bacterial and fungal communities that occur with artificial vegetation development are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the successional changes in bacterial and fungal communities in Caragana korshinskii Kom. plantation over a period of 50 a (6, 12, 18, 40 and 50 a) and their relationships with key soil environmental factors in a typical agro-pastoral ecotone, northern China. The results showed that bacterial and fungal diversities (α- and β-diversity) were significantly affected by plantation age; moreover, the change in fungal community was more evident than that in bacterial community. Soil samples from 12 a plantation had the highest (P<0.05) bacterial and fungal α-diversity (i.e., abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and Chao1 index) at 0–10 cm depth compared with other samples. However, soil samples from plantation at the late recovery stage (40–50 a) had the highest α-diversity at 10–20 cm depth. Soil bacterial community was not significantly affected by plantation age at the genus level; but, soil fungal community was significantly affected at the genus level. Overall, Mortierella and Chaetomium were the dominant genera at natural recovery stage (0 a); Inocybe was the dominant genus at the early recovery stage (6–12 a); Inocybe and Mortierella were the dominant genera at the mid-recovery stage (12–40 a); And Mortierella, Cladosporium and Humicola were the dominant genera at the late recovery stage (40–50 a). Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that β-glucosidase activity, total nitrogen and soil organic carbon were closely associated with bacterial community composition, while alkaline phosphatase, urease activity and total nitrogen were associated with fungal community composition, indicating that changes in enzyme activity and soil nutrients were the most important determinants of dominant genera. Furthermore, pathogenic microorganisms (Cladosporium and Humicola) were dominant in soils from 40–50 a plantation, which may affect plant growth, resulting in the decline of C. korshinskii plantation. Overall, the findings of this study improve the understanding of ecological patterns of bacterial and fungal communities in artificial vegetation and provide an important scientific basis for comprehensive ecological restoration management in arid and semi-arid areas.

submitted time 2021-11-10 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits24Downloads11 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202112.00004 [pdf]

Disturbance of plateau zokor-made mound stimulates plant community regeneration in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

XIANG Zeyu; Arvind BHATT; TANG Zhongbin; PENG Yansong; WU Weifeng; ZHANG Jiaxin; WANG Jingxuan; David GALLACHER; ZHOU Saixia
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Mounds constructed by plateau zokors, which is widely distributed in alpine meadows significantly modified plant community structure. However, the variations of plant community structure under the disturbance of plateau zokor-made mound are less concerned. Therefore, we investigated the responses of plant community on zokor-made mound of different years (1 a and 3–4 a), and compared with undisturbed sites (no mound) in an alpine meadow in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), China. Species richness, coverage and Simpson diversity index were all significantly reduced by the presence of zokor-made mound, but plant heights were significantly increased, particularly in grasses and sedges. Several perennial forage species showed an increased importance value and niche breadth, including Koeleria macrantha, Elymus nutans and Poa pratensis. The effect of zokor-made mound on niche overlap showed that more intense interspecific competition produced a greater utilization of environmental resources. And this interspecific niche overlap was strengthened as succession progressed. The bare mound created by zokor burrowing activities provided a colonizing opportunity for non-dominant forage species, resulting in abundant plant species and plant diversity during the succession period. We concluded that presence of zokor-made mound was conducive to regeneration and vitality of plant community in alpine meadows, thus improving their resilience to anthropogenic stress.

submitted time 2021-11-10 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits3Downloads2 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202112.00005 [pdf]

Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on leaf nutrient concentrations and nutrient resorption efficiency of two dominant alpine grass species

LIU Yalan; LI Lei; LI Xiangyi; YUE Zewei; LIU Bo
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two essential nutrients that determine plant growth and many nutrient cycling processes. Increasing N and P deposition is an important driver of ecosystem changes. However, in contrast to numerous studies about the impacts of nutrient addition on forests and temperate grasslands, how plant foliar stoichiometry and nutrient resorption respond to N and P addition in alpine grasslands is poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted an N and P addition experiment (involving control, N addition, P addition, and N+P addition) in an alpine grassland on Kunlun Mountains (Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China) in 2016 and 2017 to investigate the changes in leaf nutrient concentrations (i.e., leaf N, Leaf P, and leaf N:P ratio) and nutrient resorption efficiency of Seriphidium rhodanthum and Stipa capillata, which are dominant species in this grassland. Results showed that N addition has significant effects on soil inorganic N (NO3–-N and NH4+-N) and leaf N of both species in the study periods. Compared with green leaves, leaf nutrient concentrations and nutrient resorption efficiency in senesced leaves of S. rhodanthum was more sensitive to N addition, whereas N addition influenced leaf N and leaf N:P ratio in green and senesced leaves of S. capillata. N addition did not influence N resorption efficiency of the two species. P addition and N+P addition significantly improved leaf P and had a negative effect on P resorption efficiency of the two species in the study period. These influences on plants can be explained by increasing P availability. The present results illustrated that the two species are more sensitive to P addition than N addition, which implies that P is the major limiting factor in the studied alpine grassland ecosystem. In addition, an interactive effect of N+P addition was only discernable with respect to soil availability, but did not affect plants. Therefore, exploring how nutrient characteristics and resorption response to N and P addition in the alpine grassland is important to understand nutrient use strategy of plants in terrestrial ecosystems.

submitted time 2021-11-10 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5Downloads3 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202112.00006 [pdf]

Seasonal dynamics of soil water content in the typical vegetation and its response to precipitation in a semi-arid area of Chinese Loess Plateau

ZHOU Tairan; HAN Chun; QIAO Linjie; REN Chaojie; WEN Tao; ZHAO Changming
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Soil water content is a key limiting factor for vegetation growth in the semi-arid area of Chinese Loess Plateau and precipitation is the main source of soil water content in this area. To further understand the impact of vegetation types and environmental factors such as precipitation on soil water content, we continuously monitored the seasonal dynamics in soil water content in four plots (natural grassland, Caragana korshinskii, Armeniaca sibirica and Pinus tabulaeformis) in Chinese Loess Plateau. The results show that the amplitude of soil water content fluctuation decreases with an increase in soil depth, showing obvious seasonal variations. Soil water content of artificial vegetation was found to be significantly lower than that of natural grassland, and most precipitation events have difficulty replenishing soil water content below a depth of 40 cm. Spring and autumn are the key seasons for replenishment of soil water by precipitation. Changes in soil water content are affected by precipitation, vegetation types, soil evaporation and other factors. The interception effect of vegetation on precipitation and the demand for water consumption by transpiration are the key factors affecting the efficiency of soil water replenishment by precipitation in this area. Due to artificial vegetation plantation in this area, soil will face a water deficit crisis in the future.

submitted time 2021-11-10 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits3Downloads1 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202112.00008 [pdf]

Two-dimensional hydrodynamic robust numerical model of soil erosion based on slopes and river basins

KANG Yongde; HUANG Miansong; HOU Jingming; TONG Yu; PAN Zhanpeng
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Erosion is an important issue in soil science and is related to many environmental problems, such as soil erosion and sediment transport. Establishing a simulation model suitable for soil erosion prediction is of great significance not only to accurately predict the process of soil separation by runoff, but also improve the physical model of soil erosion. In this study, we develop a graphic processing unit (GPU)-based numerical model that combines two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic and Green-Ampt (G-A) infiltration modelling to simulate soil erosion. A Godunov-type scheme on a uniform and structured square grid is then generated to solve the relevant shallow water equations (SWEs). The highlight of this study is the use of GPU-based acceleration technology to enable numerical models to simulate slope and watershed erosion in an efficient and high-resolution manner. The results show that the hydrodynamic model performs well in simulating soil erosion process. Soil erosion is studied by conducting calculation verification at the slope and basin scales. The first case involves simulating soil erosion process of a slope surface under indoor artificial rainfall conditions from 0 to 1000 s, and there is a good agreement between the simulated values and the measured values for the runoff velocity. The second case is a river basin experiment (Coquet River Basin) that involves watershed erosion. Simulations of the erosion depth change and erosion cumulative amount of the basin during a period of 1–40 h show an elevation difference of erosion at 0.5–3.0 m, especially during the period of 20–30 h. Nine cross sections in the basin are selected for simulation and the results reveal that the depth of erosion change value ranges from –0.86 to –2.79 m and the depth of deposition change value varies from 0.38 to 1.02 m. The findings indicate that the developed GPU-based hydrogeomorphological model can reproduce soil erosion processes. These results are valuable for rainfall runoff and soil erosion predictions on rilled hillslopes and river basins.

submitted time 2021-11-10 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits7Downloads5 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202112.00009 [pdf]

Hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of groundwater in the dried-up river oasis of the Tarim Basin, Central Asia

WANG Wanrui; CHEN Yaning; WANG Weihua; XIA Zhenhua; LI Xiaoyang; Patient M KAYUMBA
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Intense human activities in arid areas have great impacts on groundwater hydrochemical cycling by causing groundwater salinization. The spatiotemporal distributions of groundwater hydrochemistry are crucial for studying groundwater salt migration, and also vital to understand hydrological and hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in arid inland oasis areas. However, due to constraints posed by the paucity of observation data and intense human activities, these processes are not well known in the dried-up river oases of arid areas. Here, we examined spatiotemporal variations and evolution of groundwater hydrochemistry using data from 199 water samples collected in the Wei-Ku Oasis, a typical arid inland oasis in Tarim Basin of Central Asia. As findings, groundwater hydrochemistry showed a spatiotemporal dynamic, while its spatial distribution was complex. TDS and δ18O of river water in the upstream increased from west to east, whereas ion concentrations of shallow groundwater increased from northwest to southeast. Higher TDS was detected in spring for shallow groundwater and in summer for middle groundwater. Pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity demonstrated the impacts of geogenic, climatic, and anthropogenic conditions. For that, hydrochemical evolution of phreatic groundwater was primarily controlled by rock dominance and evaporation-crystallization process. Agricultural irrigation and drainage, land cover change, and groundwater extraction reshaped the spatiotemporal patterns of groundwater hydrochemistry. Groundwater overexploitation altered the leaking direction between the aquifers, causing the interaction between saltwater and freshwater and the deterioration of groundwater environment. These findings could provide an insight into groundwater salt migration under human activities, and hence be significant in groundwater quality management in arid inland oasis areas.

submitted time 2021-11-10 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits7Downloads5 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202110.00017 [pdf]

Delayed seed dispersal species and related traits in the desert of the United Arab Emirates

Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The ability of plants to safely retain seeds in the mother plant is an adaptive mechanism described in many desert plants. However, research about delayed seed dispersal species in the desert of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is lacking. This study aims to identify these delayed seed dispersal species and assess the relationships of the presence of delayed seed dispersal with plant growth form, habit, spatial dispersal, antitelechoric mechanism, and seed release time. The relationships between the presence of delayed seed dispersal and the above studied traits were assessed by using the Pearson Chi-square test and Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis (NLPCA). Results showed that a total of 46 delayed seed dispersal species were recorded (15.0% of 307 studied species) and the highest incidence occurred in the Fabaceae family (17.4%). Delayed seed dispersal species were predominantly perennial plants (73.9%) with spatial restricted dispersal (67.4%), which released seed in the dry season (45.7%). The dominant groups of delayed seed dispersal species were persistent fruits species and synaptospermy (28.3%). All graminoids showed persistent lignified fruits, while prostrate annuals were basicarpic species with myxospermy. Sandy habitats had the highest number of delayed seed dispersal species (54.3%), whereas salt flats had the lowest (23.9%). In the desert of the UAE, delayed seed dispersal species spread seeds until the end of the dry and windy season, thus breaking seed dormancy at this time and ensuring seed germination in the next arrival of the rainy season. This morphological and ecological adaptation of delayed dispersal species is essential to the survival and sustainable development of vegetation in desert environments.

submitted time 2021-10-11 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5717Downloads195 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202110.00019 [pdf]

Effects of different ridge-furrow mulching systems on yield and water use efficiency of summer maize in the Loess Plateau of China

CHEN Pengpeng; GU Xiaobo; LI Yuannong; QIAO Linran; LI Yupeng; FANG Heng; YIN Minhua; ZHOU Changming
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Ridge-furrow film mulching has been proven to be an effective water-saving and yield-improving planting pattern in arid and semi-arid regions. Drought is the main factor limiting the local agricultural production in the Loess Plateau of China. In this study, we tried to select a suitable ridge-furrow mulching system to improve this situation. A two-year field experiment of summer maize (Zea mays L.) during the growing seasons of 2017 and 2018 was conducted to systematically analyze the effects of flat planting with no film mulching (CK), ridge-furrow with ridges mulching and furrows bare (RFM), and double ridges and furrows full mulching (DRFFM) on soil temperature, soil water storage (SWS), root growth, aboveground dry matter, water use efficiency (WUE), and grain yield. Both RFM and DRFFM significantly increased soil temperature in ridges, while soil temperature in furrows for RFM and DRFFM was similar to that for CK. The largest SWS was observed in DRFFM, followed by RFM and CK, with significant differences among them. SWS was lower in ridges than in furrows for RFM. DRFFM treatment kept soil water in ridges, resulting in higher SWS in ridges than in furrows after a period of no water input. Across the two growing seasons, compared with CK, RFM increased root mass by 10.2% and 19.3% at the jointing and filling stages, respectively, and DRFFM increased root mass by 7.9% at the jointing stage but decreased root mass by 6.0% at the filling stage. Over the two growing seasons, root length at the jointing and filling stages was respectively increased by 75.4% and 58.7% in DRFFM, and 20.6% and 30.2% in RFM. Relative to the jointing stage, the increased proportions of root mass and length at the filling stage were respectively 42.8% and 94.9% in DRFFM, 63.2% and 115.1% in CK, and 76.7% and 132.1% in RFM, over the two growing seasons, showing that DRFFM slowed down root growth while RFM promoted root growth at the later growth stages. DRFFM treatment increased root mass and root length in ridges and decreased them in 0–30 cm soil layer, while RFM increased them in 0–30 cm soil layer. Compared with CK, DRFFM decreased aboveground dry matter while RFM increased it. Evapotranspiration was reduced by 9.8% and 7.1% in DRFFM and RFM, respectively, across the two growing seasons. Grain yield was decreased by 14.3% in DRFFM and increased by 13.6% in RFM compared with CK over the two growing seasons. WUE in CK was non-significantly 6.8% higher than that in DRFFM and significantly 22.5% lower than that in RFM across the two growing seasons. Thus, RFM planting pattern is recommended as a viable water-saving option for summer maize in the Loess Plateau of China.

submitted time 2021-10-11 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5420Downloads217 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202110.00020 [pdf]

Response of C:N:P in the plant-soil system and stoichiometric homeostasis of Nitraria tangutorum leaves in the oasis-desert ecotone, Northwest China

WEI Yajuan; DANG Xiaohong; WANG Ji; GAO Junliang; GAO Yan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Nitraria tangutorum nebkhas are widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid desert areas of China. The formation and development of N. tangutorum nebkhas are the result of the interaction between vegetation and the surrounding environment in the process of community succession. Different successional stages of N. tangutorum nebkhas result in differences in the community structure and composition, thereby strongly affecting the distribution of soil nutrients and ecosystem stability. However, the ecological stoichiometry of N. tangutorum nebkhas in different successional stages remains poorly understood. Understanding the stoichiometric homeostasis of N. tangutorum could provide insights into its adaptability to the arid and semi-arid desert environments. Therefore, we analyzed the stoichiometric characteristics of N. tangutorum in four successional stages, i.e., rudimental, developing, stabilizing, and degrading stages using a homeostasis model in an oasis-desert ecotone of Northwest China. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents and their ratios in the 0–100 cm soil depth were significantly lower than the averages at regional and global scales and were weakly influenced by successional stages in the oasis-desert ecotone. TN and TP contents and C:N:P in the soil showed similar trends. Total carbon (TC) and TN contents in leaves were 450.69–481.07 and 19.72–29.35 g/kg, respectively, indicating that leaves of N. tangutorum shrubs had a high storage capacity for C and N. Leaf TC and TN contents and N:P ratio increased from the rudimental stage to the stabilizing stage and then decreased in the degrading stage, while the reverse trend was found for leaf C:N. Leaf TP content decreased from the rudimental stage to the degrading stage and changed significantly in late successional stages. N:P ratio was above the theoretical limit of 14, indicating that the growth of N. tangutorum shrubs was limited by P during successional stages. Leaf N, P, and N:P homeostasis in four successional stages was identified as ''strictly homeostasis''. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil acidity (pH) and the maximum water holding capacity were the main factors affecting C:N:P stoichiometric characteristics in N. tangutorum leaves. Our study demonstrated that N. tangutorum with a high degree of stoichiometric homeostasis could better cope with the arid desert environment.

submitted time 2021-10-11 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits5589Downloads249 Comment 0

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