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1. chinaXiv:202111.00046 [pdf]

自闭症谱系障碍个体的社会动机缺陷

徐慧; 王滔
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)是一种源于儿童期的神经发育障碍,社会交往障碍是其核心特征,与社会动机缺陷密切相关。社会动机是引导个体社会行为的强大动力,主要表现为社会定向、社会奖赏和社会维持。现有研究表明,ASD个体的社会动机发展存在缺陷,他们对社会刺激的注意偏向减少,不能主动寻求和体会社会互动带来的快乐,且缺乏维持社会关系的行为策略等。然而,相关研究结果受到个体特征、环境和实验设计等因素的影响。研究者未来应综合考虑这些影响因素,加强对ASD个体社会动机理论的整合研究,以便全面系统地了解ASD个体的社会动机缺陷。

submitted time 2021-11-27 Hits34Downloads6 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202107.00011 [pdf]

Properties of several fuzzy set spaces

Huan Huang
Subjects: Mathematics >> Mathematics (General)

This paper discusses the properties the spaces of fuzzy sets in a metric s- pace equipped with the endograph metric and the sendograph metric, re- spectively. We fist discuss the level characterizations of the Γ-convergence and the endograph metric, and point out the elementary relationships among Γ-convergence, endograph metric and the sendograph metric. On the basis of these results, we present the characterizations of total boundedness, rel- ative compactness and compactness in the space of compact positive α-cuts fuzzy sets equipped with the endograph metric, and in the space of com- pact support fuzzy sets equipped with the sendograph metric, respectively. Furthermore, we give completions of these two kinds of spaces, respectively.

submitted time 2021-11-27 Hits6838Downloads442 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202111.00047 [pdf]

抑制功能在疼痛中的作用

刘博; 程香娟; 岳衡; 包呼格吉乐图
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

自生物心理社会模型提出以来,利用心理因素预防和治疗疼痛备受关注,越来越多的研究表明抑制功能在疼痛发展和恢复阶段起关键作用。疼痛诱发的自我防御机制通过争夺认知资源影响抑制功能,反之低抑制功能个体在应对疼痛干扰中表现较差,进而影响着疼痛的预期和学习。现有关于抑制功能影响疼痛的研究主要基于相关设计,未来应进一步明确二者的因果关系。深入理解疼痛与抑制功能相互作用的认知机制有助于指导抑制功能对慢性疼痛的靶向干预。

submitted time 2021-11-26 Hits30Downloads7 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202111.00034 [pdf]

Revisit of Hsianwenia wui (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) from the Pliocene of Qaidam Basin

BI Dai-Ran; WU Fei-Xiang; WANG Ning; CHANG Mee-Man; FANG Geng-Yu
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The Qaidam Basin is a key area for understanding the paleoenvironmental and faunal history of the Tibetan Plateau. The fossil schizothoracine fish, Hsianwenia wui, evolved extraordinarily thickened bones to adapt to the aridification of the Qaidam Basin during the Pliocene. However, the nature of the bone thickening itself remains elusive. To promote the further investigation of the physiological mechanism of the pachyostosis and the phylogenetic interrelationships of Hsianwenia and all relevant cyprinids, here we present a comprehensive morphological study of Hsianwenia. We have new information on the anterior part of the cranial cavity, a large supraneural 3 in the Weberian apparatus, numerous procurrent caudal fin rays supported by the preural centrum (Pu) 5, and a neural arch on Pu2. We also find the differentiated pattern of the bone-thickening: the pachyostosis exists in the endoskeleton but not in the dermal skeleton; it is more obvious in ventral bones than in dorsal ones, when the thickening is present in the dorsally and ventrally grouped endoskeletal bones (e.g., the epineural and epipleural intermuscular bones). Considering the integrity of musculoskeletal system manipulating the chewing activities, we suspect that the thickened pharyngeal jaws and the hard food processing might be associated with the unique hind protrusion (cleithral “humeral” process) of the dermal pectoral girdle of Hsianwenia.

submitted time 2021-11-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits31Downloads8 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202111.00035 [pdf]

A revision of the eggshell fragment of Spheroolithus megadermus from Laiyang, Shandong Province, China

ZHANG Shu-Kang
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

In 1958, a special type of dinosaur egg was discovered in Zhaotuan, Laiyang, Shandong Province, China. Although only a large eggshell fragment was collected, its extremely large thickness indicated that the eggshell fragment represented a new ootaxon. In previous studies, it was named Spheroolithus megadermus and assigned to the oogenus Spheroolithus under the oofamily of the Spheroolithidae based on the microstructure in radial view. However, a comparative study of the microstructure in tangential views between the large eggshell fragment from Laiyang and the recently reported Multifissoolithus from Zhejiang Province, China and Yamaguchi, Japan revealed that all of them have roughly paralleled and wavy clefts. Therefore, this study reassigned the large eggshell fragment from Laiyang to Multifissoolithus of the Dongyangoolithidae and discussed its unique compact layer near the eggshell’s inner surface, as well as the chronological and spatial distribution of dongyangoolithid eggs. The reassignment of the holotype of Spheroolithus megadermus also indicates that the referred specimen of Spheroolithus megadermus from Changtu, Liaoning Province becomes the holotype of a new oospecies Spheroolithus quantouensis.

submitted time 2021-11-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits20Downloads8 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202111.00036 [pdf]

A new aardwolf-line fossil hyena from Middle and Late Miocene deposits of Linxia Basin, Gansu, China

Henry GALIANO; Z. Jack TSENG; Nikos SOLOUNIAS; WANG Xiao-Ming; QIU Zhan-Xiang; Stuart C. WHITE
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The aardwolf Proteles cristatus is the only known hyaenid, living or extinct, to exhibit an extremely reduced dentition related to its termite-specializing diet. The fossil record of extant aardwolves extends to 2 to 4 million years ago, but records that inform its evolutionary origins are essentially nonexistent. Such circumstance renders it difficult to place this unusual hyena in the broader evolutionary context of small-bodied hyaenid species in Eurasian Neogene deposits. Here we describe a new genus and species of a small-bodied hyaenid, Gansuyaena megalotis, representing the closest morphological link to aardwolves to date. This new fossil hyena is based on a skull with associated mandible, a rostrum preserving several teeth, and several referred specimens. The new specimens were discovered in Neogene deposits in Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that among early hyaenids, G. megalotis is most closely related, but unlikely ancestral, to the living aardwolf. Also recognized in this new species are the fossils previously referred to “Protictitherium” aff. P. gaillardi from Pasalar, Turkey. Additionally, “Plioviverrops” guerini from Los Mansuetos, Spain is interpreted to represent a second Gansuyaena species. In addition to the living aardwolf, Proteles cristatus, our analyses suggest that the proteline lineage includes the extinct genera Gansuyaena, Mesoviverrops, and Plioviverrops. Although the precise timing and geographic location of evolutionary divergence between the aardwolf and Gansuyaena remain elusive, critical new morphological information provided by Gansuyaena specimens reinforce findings from recent genomic analyses that the aardwolf lineage has an ancient origin from small-bodied stem hyaenids prior to the appearance of large and robust bone-cracking hyaenines.

submitted time 2021-11-26 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits17Downloads6 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202111.00032 [pdf]

人工智能决策公平感知的影响因素及其机制

蒋路远; 曹李梅; 秦昕; 谭玲; 陈晨; 彭小斐
Subjects: Psychology >> Management Psychology

不平等问题是全球社会和经济发展需要应对的首要挑战,也是实现全球可持续发展目标的核心障碍。人工智能(artificial intelligence, AI)为缓解不平等、促进社会公平提供了新的途径。然而,新近研究发现,即使客观上AI决策具有公平性和准确性,个体仍可能对AI决策的公平感知较低。因此,近年来越来越多的研究开始关注AI决策公平感知的影响因素。然而,目前研究较为分散,呈现出研究范式不统一、理论不清晰和机制未厘清等特征。这既不利于跨学科的研究对话,也不利于研究者和实践者对AI决策公平感知形成系统性理解。基于此,通过系统的梳理,现有研究可以划分为两类:(1)AI单一决策的公平感知研究,主要聚焦于AI特征和个体特征如何影响个体对AI决策的公平感知;(2)AI-人类二元决策的公平感知研究,主要聚焦于对比个体对AI决策与人类决策公平感知的差异。在上述梳理基础上,未来研究可以进一步探索AI决策公平感知的情绪影响机制等方向。

submitted time 2021-11-26 Hits1684Downloads67 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202111.00037 [pdf]

麻醉分级在围术期死亡风险评估中的作用

刘羡 ; 曹娟; 孙蓓; 蔡宏伟
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Clinical Medicine

目的 围术期死亡患者的危险因素分析和麻醉分级在围术期死亡风险评估中的作用。方法 从2007年1月至2010年12月,中南大学湘雅医院共有106,630例手术,其中有214例术后死亡病例。应用结构化问卷,收集患者基本信息和危险因素,采用Cox模型多因素分析筛选围术期死亡的危险因素。结果 214例死亡病例在ASA分级中的分布,每级病例数并没有随等级的增加而增加;而在麻醉分级的分布中,随着等级的增加,各级的数量也随之增加。多因素分析显示,创伤患者的死亡风险高59%;有心血管风险事件(CRE)患者的死亡风险高38%;麻醉分级每增加一级,围术期死亡风险增加45%;心功能分级每增加一级,死亡风险增加41%。结论 创伤、麻醉分级、心功能分级和CRE与围术期死亡相关。麻醉分级每增加一级,围术期死亡危险性增加45%,麻醉分级作为围术期死亡风险评估标准有良好的代表性。

submitted time 2021-11-26 Hits17Downloads6 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202111.00033 [pdf]

同伴侵害发展轨迹及其与内外化问题的关系:共同增强还是风险易感

肖家乐; 申子姣; 李晓燕; 林丹华
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

采用纵向设计,对1580名四年级、初一和高一学生进行连续4次追踪测量,考察同伴侵害在第1次至第3次的发展趋势及其群体异质性,并探讨同伴侵害的截距和斜率如何共同影响第4次的内外化问题。结果表明:(1)同伴侵害的发展轨迹呈现出线性递减的特点,且递减趋势因不同的流动状态呈现异质性的特点。具体而言,流动儿童、留守儿童和农村儿童的同伴侵害水平均高于城市儿童,且流动儿童和留守儿童的下降速度快于城市儿童;(2)在控制人口学因素和基线水平的内外化问题后,同伴侵害的截距和斜率对抑郁情绪的影响以压力敏感的模式发挥作用,在外化问题中以压力增强的方式发挥作用。可见,同伴侵害的截距和斜率对内外化问题的影响具有独特性,未来预防/干预研究需要因不同的问题行为制定针对性方案,以有效地提高干预效果。

submitted time 2021-11-26 Hits1641Downloads41 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202111.00031 [pdf]

第三方惩罚中的规范错觉:基于公正世界信念的解释

杨莎莎; 陈思静
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

惩罚规范在一定程度上会影响个体的惩罚行为,但个体对惩罚规范的感知与实际规范之间可能存在差异,这被称为规范错觉。为了更好地从这一角度理解第三方惩罚,我们需要回答的是:第三方惩罚中是否存在规范错觉?如果存在,其方向如何?会对个体自身的惩罚行为产生何种影响?实验1(N = 449)和实验2(N = 134)的结果表明,在违规情境中,人们往往低估了他人的惩罚水平,这导致自身较低的惩罚行为。实验3(N = 164)和实验4(N = 284)进一步发现,较弱的公正世界信念导致人们对他人惩罚水平的低估,从而影响了自身的惩罚行为,而社会距离调节了公正世界信念对规范错觉的影响。上述结果表明,规范错觉会受到内部(公正世界信念)和外部(社会距离)两个参照点的影响,同时也在一定程度上说明第三方惩罚是一种注重维护规范的积极行为、而非注重个人收益的策略行为。

submitted time 2021-11-24 Hits1719Downloads87 Comment 0

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